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              牧野之戰:成王敗寇,商紂王也許并沒有那么殘暴!

              時間:2018-11-29  來源:新浪博客  作者:chumisi    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                帝辛天資聰穎,聞見甚敏,才力過人,有倒曳九牛之威,具撫梁易柱之力,深得父皇帝乙歡心。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                商朝自商湯滅夏建立,經歷六百多年后,傳位至第三十一位國王帝辛(商紂王)時,已是危機四伏。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                帝辛繼位后,對內一方面對四分五裂的內部龐大的反對陣營進行分化、打壓,不惜采取高壓手段,或殺比干,囚箕子,逐微子,另一方面,提拔外來逃臣中的飛廉、惡來為將,牢牢掌握軍隊。此二人亦不負帝辛重望,飛廉為伐東夷統帥,商亡后仍堅持戰斗,直至戰死。而惡來更是戰死于牧野。至于內政,用費仲以對抗諸方勢力。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                對外則以戰功穩局勢,樹威望,凝人心。帝辛即位元年即命九侯、虞侯,邗侯——這與周人歷史命周侯昌為西伯要早五十年,而且原因、目的均不一樣。四年,大搜于黎——即《左傳》所謂“帝辛為黎之菟而東夷叛”者,在西邊舉行軍事演習以震懾西部諸侯,尤其是周人。九年,伐有蘇,獲妲己。二十二年,大搜于渭,囚西伯昌——現代人認為,帝辛為解除西邊威脅,于此時殺掉了西伯昌。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在解決西部威脅后,帝辛掉頭東征、南伐,對時常侵襲至王畿的東夷進行討伐,傾全國之力以期滅掉百年來的肘腋之大患。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                商與東夷之戰是一場漫長的、消耗極大的苦戰,經數十年方決出勝負。而此時商王朝所有的精華已消耗殆盡,雖然是戰勝者,俘虜、財貨無數,但帝國已成空架子。故而,以帝辛之英明強勢,只能將周人在西部征伐視若不見,而是極力地消化戰果,爭取在最短的時間內撫平戰爭的創傷。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                而這時,一直被帝辛強勢壓制的反對派在關鍵時刻給虛弱的商帝國致命一擊——大夫甲、內史向摯、微子先后逃到周,向周人出賣帝辛極力隱蓋的帝國真相,引導周人乘虛而入,商朝覆滅。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周本來是渭水中游的一個古老部落,居住于今陜西中部的一些地區,依靠優越的自然環境逐漸發展起來。到姬昌時,對內重用呂尚、散宜生、太顛、閎夭、南宮適等一幫賢臣,國力日強;對外姬昌宣揚德教,積極調停各方國間的爭端,使諸侯紛紛依附。姬昌趁機大搞統一戰線,而各國由于要供應商朝攻打東夷的大量軍隊和物資,又受到商王的猜忌和鉗制,早已苦不堪言,當然也樂于向“西伯”靠攏。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                姬昌及其幕僚又開始抓意識形態,為滅商大業奠定思想基礎,商王宣稱自己的王權得自“天命”,周人就講“天命無常,惟德是輔”,說商王無德,西伯有德,所以天命已經轉移到姬昌身上,公元前1056年,姬昌對內稱王,即周文王。另一方面,文王對商朝仍然小心翼翼,勤貢奉,甚至在自家祠堂祭祀商朝先王(在周原還有相關的甲骨文出土),以麻痹帝辛的耳目。文王據說被關在里的時候作了 《周易》 ,自然深諳與時變化之道,知道如何把握出兵的最佳時機。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                公元前1055年,姬昌出兵伐犬戎。翌年又討伐侵凌鄰國的密須,解除了伐商的后顧之憂。公元前1053年,姬昌出兵東向攻黎(山西省長治市西南);公元前1052年,攻邘(今沁陽市);公元前1051年,攻取了商王寵臣崇侯虎的崇國。這三場戰爭勝利后,周切斷了商朝同西部屬國的聯系。同年,姬昌遷都于豐(今陜西省西安市西南角),使國都不易受戎狄的侵擾并更有利于向東進兵。至此,姬昌伐商的戰略部署已經基本完成。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                公元前1050年,周文王姬昌病逝,世子姬發繼位,即周武王,武王繼位后,以示仍秉承文王之天命,繼續利用商朝暫時無暇西顧的良機向東擴張。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                而此時的商朝發生了激烈的內亂。帝辛殺了伯父比干,囚禁了另一個伯父箕子,另一些被牽連的貴族如微子等則審時度勢,投奔了周國。武王無疑從來奔的殷商貴族那里得到了不少朝歌的機密情報。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                時機已經成熟,武王決定出兵伐商,同時通知在盟津的與盟諸侯一起出兵,趁商朝主力軍滯留東南之際,精銳部隊以迅雷不及掩耳之勢,深入王畿,擊潰朝歌守軍,一舉攻陷商都,占領商朝的政治中心,瓦解商政權,讓殘余的商人及其附屬方國的勢力群龍無首,然后各個擊破。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                帝辛驚聞周軍來襲,只好倉促武裝大批奴隸、戰俘,連同守衛國都的軍隊,開赴牧野迎戰。tg5歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                但是商軍中的奴隸和戰俘全無斗志,紛紛倒戈,帝辛的最后一道陣線也守不住了。商軍殘余的抵抗仍然持續了一天,但已無力挽回局面。帝辛見大勢己去,返回朝歌,登上鹿臺,”蒙衣其珠玉,自燔于火而死“,商朝正式滅亡。周武王趕到鹿臺時,用“輕呂”擊刺帝辛的尸體,并親自斬其頭顱懸旗示眾。另有一百多個商朝的大臣貴族被俘。他們將被帶回周京,作為武王祭祖的人牲被殺死。

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              文章標簽:牧野之戰  軍事  文化  戰事  商朝


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