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              從價值觀看鴉片戰爭

              時間:2018-12-03  來源:新浪博客  作者:lj4083104    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                保衛鎮江城戰斗一直延續到深夜,英軍被打死的,據英官方公布是185人,實際數字要超過多倍。貯藏船歐琴號僅剩下3個水兵和1個侍者,船長、官兵均斃命。英軍自己也不得不承認在鎮江遭受的損失比以往任何戰役都要慘重。恩格斯指出:“駐防旗兵雖然不通兵法,可是決不缺乏勇敢和銳氣。這些駐防旗兵總共只有1500人,但殊死奮戰,直到最后一人……如果這些侵略者到處都遭到同樣的抵抗,他們絕到不了南京。”65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                乍浦之戰。乍浦的防御力量遠不如廈門、定海、鎮海。但是英軍攻占乍浦付出的代價遠遠超出了后者,共有9人斃命,55人受傷,為鴉片戰爭歷次戰斗第三位。在天尊廟,一些清軍僅僅憑借房墻以輕兵器作頑強抵抗,擊斃英陸軍中校湯林森等人。該廟被英軍炮火夷平。大多數清軍在戰斗中逃跑,而乍浦駐防八旗官兵拼死作戰,讓英軍為之膽寒。65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                裝備、技術、組織或許是一場戰役勝敗的關鍵,但絕不是一場戰爭勝敗的關鍵。如果我們每一座城市,都像鎮江、乍浦一樣,堅守自己的價值觀,與敵殊死搏斗,戰到最后一滴血。即使我們技不如人,幾億人的堂堂中華帝國,也不可能輸給區區萬人來犯的英國。65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                那么清軍就無人了嗎?也不是,當時很多人建議啟用主戰派林則徐、鄧廷楨。但是林則徐、鄧廷楨已經被懲治了。怎么回事呢?林則徐當時虎門銷煙,點燃了中英之間的戰爭。戰爭開始后,英國打了幾個勝仗,清朝立刻就慫了。派了琦善去談判。一個民族價值觀衰敗了,叛徒就特別多。琦善就是這么一個大漢奸。65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                他去了大沽口和英國談判,英國要求懲辦林則徐,口氣是非常強硬的。琦善作為傳話人,把“懲辦”翻譯成“申冤”“昭雪”。這就很合道光帝的胃口。(哪有打到你家門口來申冤的?)道光帝滿足了,他以為懲處了林則徐,兩國就可以化干戈為玉帛。琦善也在邊上煽風點火,結果道光就將林則徐發配新疆伊犁了。真是兵熊,熊一個,將熊,熊一窩。國家衰敗,帝王必昏庸。這道光的價值觀也真是讓人搖頭。當初讓林則徐禁煙,那給林的待遇是可以騎馬進紫禁城,聽說林不善騎馬,特準可以坐椅子轎進紫禁城。當時的大臣有幾個有這樣的風光。現在風頭一變,立即要懲辦林則徐。翻臉比翻書還快。你讓一朝的大臣怎么看?像林則徐都是這個下場,誰還敢效命。65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                林則徐被懲辦以后,琦善滿心以為英國人這次該高興了。結果呢,英國的要價更高了。要大清割讓香港。琦善又開始給道光做工作,道光再懦弱,也咽不下這口氣,就把琦善也革職了。這時候道光才有點后悔懲辦林則徐了。但是君子一言駟馬難追,何況是天子呢?65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                主戰的林則徐懲辦了,主降的琦善革職了。同志們,你們要是大臣該怎么提這個建議。這時候可以看到,滿清最高統治者的觀點一直在左右搖擺,這就是價值觀不堅定的結果。那么下面的官員就很難揣測圣意。誰也不敢說話。你要是堅持打,那么肯定有大臣給你拿方案。你要是降,也有人贊成。這一會兒急著打,一會兒忙著談。大臣們也都蒙圈了,心里沒底兒啊,皇上到底什么意思?這時候大家都觀望,謀定而動。這沒人獻計獻策,皇上就成孤家寡人了,更無助了。65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                鴉片戰爭敗了,就只能投降談判。對清政府來說,這還不叫降,叫“撫”,就是安撫的意思。(都這步田地了,滿清還把自己擺得高高在上呢。)清朝派了耆英和伊里布去談判。奇葩的是,這么重要的談判,也不是這兩人直接去和英國人談,是他們派了家丁去談的。然后家丁再回來轉述談判情況。65q歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                為了盡快送“瘟神”,清政府對英國的要求是有求必應,基本照單全收,連討價還價的過程都沒有。談判的結果呢,簽署了《中英南京條約》,內容大家都知道了。其一,五口通商。從廣州到上海,五個口岸通商。其二,稅率。英國進口商品的稅率是值百抽五,就是5%的稅率。而且在補充協議了,進一步約定,今后中國核定稅率,必須與英國商議才能核定。還有就是領事裁判權。英國人在中國犯了事兒,不接受清政府的審判,只接受英國的審判。也就是說,英國人如果殺了中國人,只要我英國說沒罪就是沒罪。你中國也干涉不了。所以我們后來看很多清朝題材的影視劇,外國人可以肆無忌憚欺負中國人,即便殺了人都不怕,就是有這一條的保護。這其實是侵犯了中國的司法主權。但是當時清朝人的價值觀里,哪有這些主權意識呀?這也答應了。關稅主權、司法主權的喪失,后來經過多年的努力,直到1943年才廢止。在中國實際執行了差不多一百年。

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              文章標簽:中國歷史  鴉片戰爭  林則徐  南京條約  清政府


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