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              揭開項羽“垓下之戰”真相

              時間:2018-12-03  來源:新浪博客  作者:佚名    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                “垓下之戰”是我國古代歷史上的一個經典戰例。從某種意義上講,它甚至與“漢族”的誕生有某種內在聯系。但由于《史記·高祖本紀》中有“項羽卒聞漢軍之楚歌,以為漢盡得楚地,項羽乃敗而走,是以兵大敗”這么一句述評,因而自《漢書》以來,對垓下之戰中的項羽及其將士的表現產生了諸多誤解。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                如近期張劍鋒先生于《學習時報》2010年11月15日發表的《霸王別姬:中國歷史上最著名的一次虛假報道》(以下簡稱《虛假報道》),即是典型一例。這篇論文發表后在學界一定范圍內產生了“轟動效應”,甚至被人稱為“驚天動地的論斷”,《新華文摘》于2011年第2期進行了轉載。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                筆者認真讀后,認為《虛假報道》中認定項羽是“棄軍而逃”的“懦夫”,而《史記》對項羽作了“虛假報道”的論點和論據均是不妥當的,因而有必要對《史記》中與“垓下之戰”有關的重要史料進行系統梳理與分析,以撥開“垓下之戰”的層層迷霧。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                錯判局勢與盲目自信2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在“垓下之戰”中,對項羽這個楚軍統帥的分析,應分為兩個方面講,即他為何而敗,又為何而亡?2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                先講因何而敗。我們認為,《史記·項羽本紀》中“鴻溝之約”簽訂后,項羽即“解(通‘懈’)而東歸”,這是他作為統帥犯下的第一個重大錯誤。由于“懈”,他既沒有深入了解已占領他的首都彭城的韓信及其軍隊的實力,又沒有積極地與江東楚國后方進行有效聯系,對兵員與后勤補給漠不關心。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                項羽犯的第二個重大錯誤是建立在第一個錯誤基礎上的,即“軍壁垓下”以圖奪回首都。以今天的軍事眼光看,他當時正確的選擇是不在垓下建“壁”駐扎,而應率軍直過江東,以獲得必要的軍事休整與補給。但由于他有“巨鹿之戰”以十分之一兵力戰敗章邯、在第一次彭城之戰中以不足二十分之一的兵力大敗偷襲他首都的劉邦這兩個成功戰例,再加上他沒有與韓信正面交過手這一因素,因此犯了盲目驕傲自大的錯誤,妄想續寫“巨鹿之戰”和“第一次彭城之戰”以少勝多、一戰而扭轉戰略態勢的輝煌。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                但這次他失算了。韓信當過項羽的部下,但項羽卻不了解韓信,這是項羽的悲劇。他在垓下第一次與韓信的大決戰中,因盲目反擊而中了韓信佯裝“不利,卻”的“調虎離山”之計,在勇猛追擊的路上中了韓信的埋伏而大敗垓下。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                這一戰《史記》寫得很清楚。它告訴我們,正是這一仗,項羽“可十萬”中的主力被殲滅殆盡,被四面包圍的剩余楚軍已基本喪失了再次進攻的能力。因此,“四面楚歌”只不過是壓垮垓下楚軍的最后一根稻草而已。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                那么,對于項羽率八百余騎“直夜潰圍南出”到底應怎么看?筆者認為,這是項羽在垓下之戰中所作出的唯一清醒正確的決策。如果他能將這一決策貫徹到底,他是能夠做到“善敗者不亡”的。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                下面再講他的“亡”。綜觀《史記》中的記載,項羽在“垓下之戰”中的確不必“亡”,也不是“亡”在劉邦或韓信手中,而是“亡”在他自己手中。請注意,《史記》中記載了這樣兩個細節:一是他在“南出”突圍中,于陰陵“迷失道”,項羽發出了“此天亡我也”的感嘆。在項羽看來,他身經大小七十余戰,從沒迷失過道,而如今怎么會在最緊要的關頭、在自己的國土上大白天“迷失道”呢?他認為這是天意。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                二是他率領僅存的二十六騎“欲東渡烏江”,而這時卻只有一只容納一人的小船。請認真讀《史記》,這二十六騎不是一般的士兵,是他“率八千子弟兵渡江而西”僅存的二十六騎。烏江亭長讓他撇下這二十六騎獨自過江,這是一個清醒而正確的建議。但此時的項羽顯示出他性格中獨特的一面,又認為是“此天亡我”。他主動放棄了國王的責任而作出了與二十六騎同生共死、血戰到底的抉擇。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                作為領袖,這是愚蠢的;但作為將軍,至少在他的子弟兵和那個時代多數人的心目中,他的確是視死如歸的英雄,并不是什么“懦夫”。事物的辯證法就是如此。2UY歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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              文章標簽:垓下之戰  戰爭  軍事  項羽  劉邦


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