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              清朝技術派官員分析鴉片戰爭:火炮命中率低

              時間:2018-12-03  來源:新浪博客  作者:別安之歌    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                第一次鴉片戰爭是中國近代史上一件大事,以此事件為標志,中國開始進入半殖民地半封建社會,其起因、過程和結果大家都已經很熟悉,無須贅言。至于其失敗原因,主要是因為清政府的腐敗無能,像林則徐這樣有眼光有魄力的英雄也無力回天,同時,也和西方列強的船堅炮利有很大關系,中國在武器上吃了虧。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                不過,對于遠去的歷史,除了從大節上進行把握,還要從細節上深入了解,尤其是當事人的回憶錄和筆記,能從技術上揭開這場戰爭勝敗的原因。例如當時負責廣西防務的梁章鉅,就對清軍為何失敗進行了軍事技術上的探討,我們來看看他的一手資料。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                積極防御派REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                為抗敵盡心部署和制造火炮REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                梁章鉅在近代史上的名氣遠不如林則徐,然而,他也是一個響當當的英雄人物,既有學問,又很務實,對于推動中國的進步,做了很大的貢獻。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                梁章鉅跟林則徐一樣,也是福建人,祖籍長樂,出生在福州。他是個優等生,15歲中秀才,20歲中舉人,28歲中進士,44歲的時候就入了軍機處。在考場上,他一路順風,沒有苦熬,年紀輕輕就解決了功名問題。功名早一點解決,就可以早從讀書考試中抽身出來辦實事。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                盡管仕途上很順,但梁章鉅并沒有沾沾自喜,也沒有因此而沉浸在個人的成就里,他跟林則徐一樣,對于當時英國的鴉片流入極為憂心,因此差不多在林則徐上書禁煙的時候,他也上書,提出了同樣的要求。當林則徐在廣州禁鴉片的時候,作為配合,梁章鉅也在廣西梧州一帶捉拿煙販,鏟除罌粟種植地。由于他的雷厲風行,禁煙措施頗為見效。雖然其知名度沒有林則徐的虎門銷煙大,但同樣也是利于民族之舉。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                英國因為鴉片發動了戰爭,當時的梁章鉅在廣西梧州一帶負責防務,因此,他可算是第一次鴉片戰爭的當事人和親歷者。1841年,英國海軍在廣東沿海一帶發起進攻時,在廣西的梁章鉅連忙運送了四十座大炮支援廣州防務,據其回憶筆記《歸田瑣記》中的一篇名為“炮說”的文章記載,這些大炮的規格在八百觔至三千觔之間,“前后選運大炮,自三千觔至八百觔不等,凡四十座,解往廣州協濟。”REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                送這些大炮的時候,梁章鉅也向朝廷奏明,等戰役結束之后,這些炮還是要運回廣西的。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                然而,可惜的是,廣州一戰后,這些火炮全都下落不明,據說要么被英國人破壞,要么被沉到海里去了。這讓梁章鉅很心痛,他痛斥主持防務的琦善是“開門揖盜”。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                同一年,梁章鉅調任江蘇巡撫,在上海會同江南提督陳化成加強防御工事。他們在吳淞海岸一帶巡查火炮部署情況,當時統計火炮有百來座。同時,他又命令在上海開造新炮數十座,準備工作還是做得很充足的。因此,他和陳化成主持防御工作時,英國的艦隊不敢冒犯,一度繞開。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                只是沒想到,梁章鉅離任后,兩江總督牛鑒貪生怕死,臨陣逃脫,丟失鎮江。又一個事實讓梁章鉅心痛不已,原來部署好制造的新炮全部丟失,“次年英夷長驅直入,城內外各炮盡歸烏有”。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                數次交戰失利,讓清廷很多人對英國的火炮心懷恐懼,認為中國的火炮殺傷力和射程,不如英國火炮,“議者遂謂中土之炮,遠不敵英夷之炮”。梁章鉅卻對此說“不”,他認為不是武器不如,而是另有原因。REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                抗英技術派REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                清軍失利在于火炮命中率太低REc歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                梁章鉅作為抗英戰爭的親自指揮者,對武器論不以為然。他認為那些恐英論是沒有理由的,沒有講到根子上,“此非探本之言也”。當然,梁章鉅這樣說也不是出于盲目自大,也是從技術角度出發進行反駁的。他認為英國炮艦之所以得逞,在于其火炮先聲奪人。在“炮說”一文中,梁章鉅列舉了實例,認為英國炮艦上的火炮最嚇人的是桅桿頂端的飛炮,這種火炮發射的時候“火光迸射,縱橫一二丈”,樣子挺嚇人的,廈門和寶山的失陷,就是飛炮導致的。其實,這種火炮唬人有余,摧毀力不足,“攻敵則不足,用以驚敵則有余”,但兩江總督牛鑒就被英軍的火炮嚇跑了。指揮官一聽到飛炮聲,一看到飛炮的氣勢,就把持不住,嚇得先跑,自然連累全軍,導致戰敗。梁章鉅認為戰敗原因,很大部分就在于指揮官被飛炮嚇壞了。

              未標明來源于“歷史春秋網”的稿件均為轉載,版權歸原作者所有。如本文內容影響到您的合法權益(含文章中內容、圖片等),請與我們聯系,我們將及時處理。 聯系郵箱:6465372@qq.com;QQ:6465372

              文章標簽:中國歷史  清朝  鴉片戰爭  火炮  梁章鉅


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