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              中國古代的心理戰——四面楚歌之“垓下之戰”

              時間:2018-12-05  來源:新浪博客  作者:冷老師心理咨詢    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                西漢史學家司馬遷《史記•項羽本紀》:“項王軍壁垓下,兵少食盡,漢軍及諸侯兵圍之數重。夜聞漢軍四面皆楚歌,項王乃大驚,曰:‘漢皆已得楚乎?是何楚人之多也。’ 項王則夜起,飲帳中。有美人名虞,常幸從;駿馬名騅,常騎之。于是項王乃悲歌慷慨,自為詩曰:‘力拔山兮氣蓋世,時不利兮騅不逝。騅不逝兮可奈何!虞兮虞兮奈若何!’歌數闋,美人和(hè 第四聲 附和,應和)之。項王泣數行下。左右皆泣,莫能仰視。”c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                這一典故就是古代用兵的“攻心為上”的成功案例。所謂心理戰,是指以人的心理為目標,運用心理學的原理,通過宣傳等方式對人的心理施加刺激和影響,使其朝著預定的方向變化和發展,造成有利于己、不利于敵的心理狀態,從而鞏固己方陣線,從心理上打垮敵人的一種特殊的作戰方式。在四面楚歌一例中就有很多方面值得我們學習。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                一.劉邦與項羽人物分析c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                (一)一個個體的個性形成是一個發展的過程。一個人的生活背景,教養方式等一系列的刺激都會對個人后來的自我意識和人格形成有巨大的影響。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                劉邦:頗象個混混兒。他的出身極其普通,其名子不為世人知,這與項羽的名將后裔身份形成鮮明的對比。在一貫重視光環和背景的人們心目中,劉邦顯得黯淡,但他給自己制定了人生高度,不段的完善自我,也造就了最后的成功。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                項羽:出生將門貴族,少年是學書學劍,卻因煩躁而半途而廢。自幼喪母,從小缺乏關愛,這樣的背景決定了他內心相當孤苦,也奠定并沉積了一生難以校正的性格缺陷。他具有災難性情感的突出特征,他的性格特點貫穿一生始終,所以他的失敗是必然的失敗。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                (二)一個成功的領導者應有自己的一套方法,應具備許多優秀的品德和能力。如責任感,進取心,思維決策能力,判斷能力等等都為自己取得成功創造出了一個有利條件。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                劉邦:以名人為榜樣,不斷提高和完善自己、努力追求人生的高度,這是劉邦戰勝項羽的最重要原因。他自比“信陵君”,從而給自己定出了人生的高度。他常不自覺地模仿信陵君的處世、行為方式,為自己的性格添加了理性和工于心計的優秀的一面,這使得他的人生成為不斷提高和完善自己的一生,善于根據情勢揣摸人的心理,潤滑人際關系,有較強的凝聚力,能夠吸引他人為己所用。其麾下人才濟濟,蕭何韓信陳平......皆忠誠效命。而且他寬容,遇事冷靜,為成大事,堅忍克己。為自己打天下鋪了一條很好的道路。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                項羽:他空有高志卻目光短淺;愛慕虛榮,不乏自滿自得的小農意識;凡事勇在先,智在后,殘忍有余,仁善不足;缺乏從諫如流、寬宏大量的國君氣質。這就決定了他的一生,只宜做一名叱咤風云的將軍,卻不具備一種帝王的胸懷。缺乏謀略和視野,不具備政治家所需具備的條件。他缺乏從容應變的政治機謀和居安思危的憂患意識。在逆境中,他更不具備自我抑制的反思和忍辱負重的耐力。剩下的只是任情使性的草率。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                二.從局勢上分析c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                (一)韓信對敵人的人員分配有清楚的了解。知道楚地人多,準確預期了被圍困的士兵的孤獨情結。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                當時項羽十余萬大軍被圍困垓下,而楚軍大部分都是楚國人。十月份時值冬日,天寒地凍。楚軍在圍困之中,衣被單薄,缺少食物,情緒極為低落。一天晚上,夜空中傳來一陣陣楚地歌謠,士兵們屏氣傾聽,普遍產生了思鄉的情緒。c3I歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                這首歌曲也就成了這場戰爭的轉折點。從心理學角度分析:人具有兩個特性,一是具有理性思維的特點,另一個是具有情感情緒等特點。音樂是人們思維情感反映社會現實的一門藝術,借助音樂手段是實施情感戰術的一種有效方法。所謂楚歌,是楚地人長年累積的群體經驗和心理特征的濃縮代表。包含了楚地人耳熟能詳的濃濃風俗與鄉情,是一首有著強有力沖擊的思鄉曲。不得不讓楚地士兵產生對家鄉和親人的思念。使得軍心渙散,項羽更是暴躁不安,無心指揮軍隊。在這里沒有打打殺殺,沒有血流成河,卻在另一個領域內進行了心理上的交鋒。韓信就是抓住了項羽的性格弱點,從精神上打垮了項羽。這首歌給予了項羽以及他的軍隊很強的心理暗示,也體現了這首歌在情感上和人性上的巨大的藝術魅力。

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              文章標簽:中國  歷史  垓下之戰  心理戰  項羽


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