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              您當前的位置:首頁 >>  商朝 >>  商朝歷史(約公元前1600-前1100年)

              孔明正議歷史事件之《牧野之戰》

              時間:2018-12-12  來源:新浪博客  作者:孔明    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                商湯所建立的商王朝,歷經初興、中衰、復振、全盛、衰弱諸階段后,到了商紂王(帝辛)即位時期,已步入了全面危機的深淵。在紂王的統治下,商王朝政治腐敗、刑罰酷虐,連年征戰,民不聊生;貴族內部分崩離析,社會動蕩不安,出現了“如蜩如螗,如沸如羹”的混亂局面。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                與商王朝形成鮮明對比的是:西方屬國“周”的國勢正如日中天、蒸蒸日上。公劉、古公亶父、王季等人的積極經營,使周迅速強盛起來,其勢力伸入江、漢流域。文王姬昌即位后,任用賢士呂尚,“陰謀修德以傾商”,積極從事伐紂滅商的宏偉大業。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                文王在政治上積極修德行善,裕民富國,廣羅人才,發展生產,造成清明的政治局面。在修明內政的同時,爭取與國,最大限度孤立商紂。擴大了政治影響,瓦解了商朝的附庸,取得了“伐交”斗爭的重大勝利。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                文王在呂尚的輔佐下,制定了正確的伐紂軍事戰略方針。其一是翦商羽翼,對商都朝歌形成戰略包圍態勢,相繼征服犬戎、密須、阮、共等方國,翦滅黎、邘、崇等商室的重要屬國,消除了后顧之憂,打開了進攻商都朝歌的通路。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                文王在完成翦商大業前夕去世,周武王姬發繼位,他繼承父親的遺志,遵循既定的戰略方針,并加緊予以落實:在孟津(今河南孟津東北)與諸侯結盟,向朝歌派遣間諜,準備伺機興師。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                當時,商紂王已感覺到周人對自己構成的嚴重威脅,決定對周用兵。然而為平息東夷的反叛,紂王調動部隊傾全力進攻東夷,結果造成西線兵力的極大空虛。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                孟津會盟之后的兩年中,紂王昏亂暴虐,愈演愈烈;殺王子比干、囚禁箕子,人民的不滿無以復加,連太師、少師都抱樂器奔周。紂已眾叛親離、徹底孤立,伐紂時機已經成熟。武王遍告諸侯:殷有重罪,不可不伐!jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                公元前1046年正月,周武王統率兵車300乘,虎賁3000人,甲士4萬5千人,浩浩蕩蕩東進伐商。同月下旬,周軍進抵孟津,與庸、盧、彭、濮、蜀(均居今漢水流域)、羌、微(均居今渭水流域)、髳(居今山西省平陸南)等部落的部隊會合。武王率本部及協同作戰的部落軍隊于 正月二十八日由孟津(今河南孟縣南)冒雨迅速東進。從汜地(今河南滎陽汜水鎮)渡過黃河后,兼程北上,至百泉(今河南輝縣西北)折而東行,直指朝歌。周師沿途沒有遇到商軍的抵抗,6天后的二月初四拂曉抵達牧野。周軍進攻的消息傳至朝歌,朝廷上下一片驚恐,商紂王無奈之中只好倉促部署防御。但此時商軍主力還遠在東南地區,無法立即調回。只好武裝大批奴隸,連同守衛國都的商軍共約17萬人,紂王親自率領,開赴牧野迎戰周師。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                二月初五凌晨,周軍布陣完畢,莊嚴誓師,史稱“牧誓”。誓師后,武王下令向商軍發起總攻擊。他先讓呂尚率領一部分精銳突擊部隊向商軍挑戰,以牽制迷惑敵人,并打亂其陣腳。商軍中的奴隸和戰俘心向武王,這時便紛紛起義,掉轉戈矛,幫助周師作戰。武王乘勢猛烈沖殺敵軍,商軍十幾萬之眾頃刻土崩瓦解。紂王見大勢盡去,于當天晚上倉惶逃回朝歌,登上鹿臺自焚而死。周軍乘勝進擊,攻占朝歌,爾后分兵四出,征伐各地諸侯,肅清殷商殘余勢力,商朝滅亡。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周軍取得牧野之戰的徹底勝利決非偶然。首先是周文王、周武王長期正確運用“伐謀”、“伐交”策略的結果。它起到了爭取人心,翦敵羽翼,麻痹對手,建立反商統一戰線的積極效果。其次,是做到了正確選擇決戰的時機,即乘商師主力遠征東夷未還,商王朝內部分崩離析之時,果斷地統率諸侯聯軍實施戰略奔襲,從而使敵人在戰略、戰術上均陷于劣勢和被動,未暇作有效的抵抗。第三,適時展開戰前誓師,歷數商紂罪狀,宣布作戰行動要領和戰場紀律,鼓舞士氣,瓦解敵人。第四,在牧野決戰的作戰指揮上,善于做到奇正并用,予敵以巧妙而猛烈的打擊,使之頃刻徹底崩潰。jnG歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                商紂王之所以迅速敗亡,根本的原因自然是因為殷商統治集團政治腐朽,橫行暴斂,嚴刑酷法,導致喪盡民心,眾叛親離。其次是對東方進行長期的掠奪戰爭,削弱了力量,且造成軍事部署的失衡。三是殷商統治者對周人的戰略意圖缺乏警惕,放松戒備,自食惡果;四是作戰指揮上消極被動,無所作為。加上軍中那些臨時倉促征發的奴隸陣上起義,反戈一擊,其一敗涂地也就不可避免了。

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              文章標簽:中國歷史  古代歷史  商朝  西周  周武王  紂王  牧野之戰


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