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              商周牧野之戰

              時間:2018-12-12  來源:新浪博客  作者:佚名    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                牧野之戰,就是商周之際周武王在太公望等人輔佐下,率軍直搗商都朝歌(今河南淇縣),在牧野(今淇縣以南衛河以北地區)大破商軍、滅亡商朝的一次戰略決戰。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                商湯所建立的商王朝,歷經初興、中衰、復振、全盛、寖弱諸階段后,到了商紂王(帝辛)即位時期,已步入了全面危機的深淵。在封王的統治下,商王朝政治腐敗、刑罰酷虐,連年對外用兵,民眾負擔沉重,痛苦不堪;貴族內部矛盾重重,分崩離析,從而導致了整個社會動蕩不安,出現了“如蜩如螗,如沸如羹”的混亂局面。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                與日薄西山、奄奄一息的商王朝形成鮮明對比的是:商的西方屬國——周的國勢正如日當中、蒸蒸日上。公劉、古公亶父、王季等人的積極經營,使周迅速強盛起來,其勢力伸入江、漢流域。文王姬昌即位后,任用熟悉商朝內部情況的賢士呂尚,“陰謀修德以傾商政”,積極從事伐紂滅商的宏偉大業。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周文王為牧野之戰的展開、“翦商”大業的完成,奠定了堅實的基礎。在政治上他積極修德行善,裕民富國,廣羅人才,發展生產,造成“耕者九一,仕者世祿,關市譏而不征,澤梁無禁,罪人不孥”的清明政治局面。他的“篤仁、敬老、慈少、禮下賢”政策,贏得了人們的廣泛擁護,鞏固了內部的團結。在修明內政的同時,他向商紂發起了積極的政治、外交攻勢:請求商紂“去炮烙之刑”,爭取與國,最大限度孤立商紂。文王曾公平地處理了虞、芮兩國的領土糾紛,還頒布“有亡荒閱”(搜索逃亡奴隸)的法令,保護奴隸主們的既得利益。通過這些措施,文王擴大了政治影響,瓦解了商朝的附庸,取得了“伐交”斗爭的重大勝利。在處理商周關系上,文王表面上恭順事商,以麻痹紂王。他曾率諸侯朝覲紂王,向其顯示所謂的“忠誠”。同時大興土木,“列侍女,撞鐘擊鼓”,裝出一副貪圖亨樂的樣子,欺騙紂王,誘使其放松警惕,確保滅商準備工作能夠在暗中順利地進行。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在各方面準備工作基本就緒之后,文王在呂尚的輔佐下,制定了正確的伐紂軍事戰略方針。其第一個步驟,就是翦商羽翼,對商都朝歌形成戰略包圍態勢。為此,文王首先向西北和西南用兵,相繼征服犬戎、密須、阮、共等方國,消除了后顧之憂。接著,組織軍事力量向東發展,東渡黃河,先后翦滅黎、邘、崇等商室的重要屬國,打開了進攻商都——朝歌的通路。至此,周已處于“三分天下有其二”的有利態勢,伐紂滅商只不過是一個時間問題了。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                文王在完成翦商大業前夕逝世,其子姬發繼位,是為周武王。他即位后,繼承乃父遺志,遵循既定的戰略方針,并加緊予以落實:在孟津(今河南孟津東北)與諸侯結盟,向朝歌派遣間諜,準備伺機興師。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                當時,商紂王已感覺到周人對自己構成的嚴重威脅,決定對周用兵。然而這一擬定中的軍事行動,卻因東夷族的反叛而化為泡影。為平息東夷的反叛,紂王調動部隊傾全力進攻東夷,結果造成西線兵力的極大空虛。與此同時,商朝統治集團內部的矛盾呈現白熾化,商紂飾過拒諫,肆意胡為,殘殺王族重臣比干,囚禁箕子,逼走微子。武王、呂尚等人遂把握這一有利戰機,決定乘虛蹈隙,大舉伐紂,一戰而勝。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                公元前1027年(一說前1057年)正月,周武王統率兵車300乘,虎賁3000人,甲士4萬5千人,浩浩蕩蕩東進伐商。同月下旬,周軍進抵孟津,在那里與反商的庸、盧、彭、濮、蜀(均居今漢水流域)、羌、微(均居今渭水流域)、髳(居今山西省平陸南)等方國部落的部隊會合。武王利用商地人心歸周的有利形勢,率本部及協同自己作戰的方國部落軍隊,于正月二十八日由孟津冒雨迅速東進。從汜地(今河南滎陽汜水鎮)渡過黃河后,兼程北上,至百泉(今河南輝縣西北)折而東行,直指朝歌。周師沿途沒有遇到商軍的抵抗,故開進順利,僅經過6天的行程,便于二月初四拂曉抵達牧野。eeQ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周軍進攻的消息傳至朝歌,商朝廷上下一片驚恐。商紂王無奈之中只好倉促部署防御。但此時商軍主力還遠在東南地區,無法立即調回。于是只好武裝大批奴隸,連同守衛國都的商軍共約17萬人(一說70萬,殊難相信),由自己率領,開赴牧野迎戰周師。二月初五凌晨,周軍布陣完畢,莊嚴誓師,史稱“牧誓”。武王在陣前聲討紂王聽信寵姬讒言,不祭祀祖宗,招誘四方的罪人和逃亡的奴隸,暴虐地殘害百姓等諸多罪行,從而激發起從征將士的敵愾心與斗志。接著,武王又鄭重宣布了作戰中的行動要求和軍事紀律:每前進六步、七步,就要停止取齊,以保持隊形;每擊刺四、五次或六、七次,也要停止取齊,以穩住陣腳。嚴申不準殺害降者,以瓦解商軍。

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