<address id="zfvvj"><listing id="zfvvj"><progress id="zfvvj"></progress></listing></address>

        <address id="zfvvj"><address id="zfvvj"><listing id="zfvvj"></listing></address></address>
        <address id="zfvvj"><address id="zfvvj"><listing id="zfvvj"></listing></address></address>

              今天是: 繁體中文
              手機版 | 歷史上的今天 | 幫助 | 加入收藏 | 設為首頁 | 會員中心 |我要投稿 | RSS歷史網RSS訂閱
              歷史春秋網 歷史春秋網道學頻道
              您當前的位置:首頁 >>  商朝 >>  商朝歷史(約公元前1600-前1100年)

              商周牧野之戰揭秘

              時間:2018-12-12  來源:新浪博客  作者:佚名    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                戰爭的根源要再追溯到幾百年前。公元前十三世紀左右,由于全球氣候的劇烈變動,一場民族大遷徙像暴風一樣席卷了整個亞歐大陸,各游牧民族紛紛從廣袤的中部草原侵入到四周的農耕文明區,呈波紋狀擴散開來,引起了一連串的改變整個世界的連鎖反應。在希臘,多利安人南下伯羅奔尼撒半島,毀滅了正欣欣向榮的邁錫尼文明;在小亞細亞,被稱為“海上民族”的幾支蠻族摧毀了赫梯帝國,進而騷擾埃及邊境,并最終導致了埃及“新王國”的覆滅;在印度,雅利安人也越過興都庫什山進入印度河流域,征服了當地的達羅毗荼人;同一時期的東亞,一支強大的游牧民族從蒙古高原南下,占據了今天的陜西、山西北部,對當時正處于鼎盛期的商王朝形成了巨大威脅,在后來的華夏文獻中,他們被稱為“鬼方”,也就是后來匈奴人的祖先。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                與后世儒家經典的理想描述不同,商朝并不是一個“大一統”王朝。實際上,在當時的中原大地上,操漢藏語、突厥語、蒙古-通古斯語和南島語的各種族、部落犬牙交錯,時時流動,有的已經進入農耕文明,有的還是游牧民族。商朝是其中最開化和最強大的政治組織,商王自稱受“上帝”之命統治世界,但直接統治范圍其實只有都城附近方圓幾百公里,稱為“王畿”。此外是許多臣服于商的“方國”,他們對商王有納貢和從征的義務,但是內政不受干涉。再以外,就是根本不承認或不知道商朝至高地位的“蠻夷”了,防范、消滅和征服他們是商代軍事活動的主旋律。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                鬼方的入侵改變了東方世界的實力對比。商高宗武丁時期,商朝與鬼方多次激戰,雖然一時擊退了鬼方,卻未能消滅其根本。此后直到商亡,鬼方仍不時出沒騷擾,其他各蠻族也乘機作亂,長期戰爭中,商朝的實力逐漸削弱。面對游牧民族來無影去無蹤的威脅,商人后來采取了“以夷制夷”的策略,扶植臣屬的周國去征討其他蠻族。結果養虎成患,反而使得周人實力壯大。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周人發跡后,自稱是正牌的華夏貴胄,夏朝以后才不幸“沒于戎狄”。不過,現代史學家多認為周人最初與周邊羌、戎各族并無區別,同樣是西北游牧民族的一支。據考,他們本居于山西的汾河流域,周文王的祖父古公父為首領時,受到鬼方的壓迫,南遷到岐山之下的周原。那里土地肥沃,周人遂改游牧為農耕,向商朝稱臣納貢,并仿效文化,建立城郭,設置官制,成為一個新興方國。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周人兼有華夏和戎狄的雙面優勢,因而在錯綜復雜的各派勢力之間如魚得水,迅速發展壯大。古公父之子季歷繼任首領后,得到商王武乙的召見和賞賜,命他出師討伐今陜西中北部的西落鬼戎(鬼方的一支)。季歷出兵大獲全勝,甚至捕獲了對方的主要首領。此后十幾年,季歷又接連以王命的名義,征服和吞并了周圍不少蠻族部落,因戰功被商王文丁封為“牧師(諸侯之長)”。周國的勢力急劇膨脹,甚至侵入到南方的江、漢一帶。傳說季歷的兄弟太伯、仲雍“讓位”給季歷,自己“遠竄荊蠻”,太伯還成了吳國的開國之君。不過據史學家考證,這個動人的故事不過為了掩飾周人在長江流域的殖民擴張而已。但周國的擴張還是引起了文丁的警覺,后來他將季歷囚禁處死。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                季歷死后,世子姬昌繼位,時約前1100年。《竹書紀年》載,姬昌即位初年,為報父仇而出兵伐商,但商朝實力尚在,周國沒討到什么便宜。此后,姬昌不得不韜光隱曜,臣服于商,還從商朝娶了一位貴族小姐為妻,但卻難以消除商朝的猜忌。商王帝辛(名紂,即后世所稱的紂王)繼位后,為翦除日漸強大的幾個方國,羅織罪名殺了好幾個諸侯國君,同時也將姬昌幽禁于里(今河南湯陰附近)長達七年。后來,周國卑躬屈膝,一再進貢美女珠寶,帝辛才赦免了姬昌。姬昌也很乖覺,一遇赦就主動割讓洛西之地,以解除商朝對自己的疑忌。果然,帝辛“龍顏大悅”,封他為“西伯”,甚至賜給他弓矢斧鉞(象征征伐權),放他回國。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                按說,帝辛既然猜忌姬昌,縱然開恩釋放,又何至于給他征伐權然后放虎歸山?這還得從帝辛本人說起。據《史記·殷本紀》,帝辛“資辯捷疾,聞見甚敏;材力過人,手格猛獸;知足以拒諫,言足以飾非,矜人臣以能,高天下以聲,以為皆出己之下”,又說他“好酒淫樂,嬖于婦人”。除去史官的有意貶損之辭,不難看到,這位商朝的末代君主其實是一個聰穎勇武、才華橫溢、性情剛烈而又過于自負的人物。據史書中的一些零星記載以及殷墟甲骨提供的線索,此時,江、淮之間的東夷發動叛亂,成為對商朝的最主要威脅,帝辛也將注意力集中在東南方,他認為西邊的周國畢竟只是蕞爾小邦,沒有顛覆大商的實力,但是仇隙既在,難保不乘機作亂。賦予姬昌征伐權并放他歸國,不但暫時可以綏靖周國,而且能誘使他出兵討伐諸鄰國,造成兩敗俱傷的局面,以保證商朝后方的穩定。

              未標明來源于“歷史春秋網”的稿件均為轉載,版權歸原作者所有。如本文內容影響到您的合法權益(含文章中內容、圖片等),請與我們聯系,我們將及時處理。 聯系郵箱:6465372@qq.com;QQ:6465372

              文章標簽:中國歷史  古代歷史  商朝  西周  周武王  紂王  牧野之戰


              圖說歷史
              圖說民國十大奇女子
              圖說民國十大奇女子
              毛澤東外交舊照
              毛澤東外交舊照
              世襲罔替”的清朝十二家“鐵帽子王”
              世襲罔替”的清朝十二
              美雜志拍46年沈陽妓女
              美雜志拍46年沈陽妓女
              歷史春秋網微信公眾號

              掃碼關注歷史春秋網微信公眾號


              推薦資訊
              大唐危局:唐德宗的削藩策
              大唐危局:唐德宗的削藩
              辟謠:劉伯溫見諸葛亮墳前五字直接跪了?
              辟謠:劉伯溫見諸葛亮墳
              真實歷史中的李愬雪夜入蔡州是啥回事
              真實歷史中的李愬雪夜
              君子世無雙:孔子論一個人的素養
              君子世無雙:孔子論一


              廣告
              欄目熱門
              相關文章
              五福彩票 www.130511.com | www.50052g.com | www.758799.com | www.669by.com | www.51331c.com | www.68682l.com | www.80767m.com | www.190882.com | www.540977.com | www.602434.com | www.671466.com | www.707602.com | www.701337.com | www.137916.com | www.99677p.com | www.21202t.com | www.34788x.com | www.50024t.com | www.29178h.com | www.107ak.com | www.ok52.com | www.okw0.com | www.369053.com | www.602857.com | www.769526.com | www.312876.com | www.369477.com | www.99638l.com | www.600hc.com | www.631012.com | www.83033g.com | www.23022.cc | www.063wy.com | www.881809.com | www.lcw199.com | www.36787c.com | www.1368o.cc | www.919725.com | www.748767.com | www.78700k.com | www.3416l.com | www.ya230.com | www.yc7701.com | www.99788q.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.hx5577.com | www.396990.com | www.87668p.com | www.807860.com | www.301823.com | www.5095v.com | www.737884.com | www.39500t.com | www.qj63.com | www.81233n.com | www.755670.com | www.49956j.com | www.645880.com | www.66332k.com | www.zcwf5.com | www.187393.com | www.mody8.com | www.lcw199.com | www.005ac.com | www.96386d.com | www.318548.com | www.186793.com | www.987434.com | www.265553.com | www.26878t.com | www.671566.com | www.3890b.com | www.178763.com | www.hy6262.com | www.23636g.com | www.611669.com | www.38381.cc | www.50026s.com | www.sygj4.com | www.49956t.com | www.578860.com | www.2875w.com | www.50074j.com | www.342977.com | www.9478l.com | www.66332a.com | www.547377.com | www.cp7768.com | www.zuan222.com | www.81678j.com | www.hf5882.com | www.65707m.com | www.060640.com | www.9889hc.com | www.21202k.com | www.rcw789.com | www.c5128.com | www.9205d.com | www.66376d.com | www.503662.com | www.1368x.cc | www.89939.cc | www.83033i.com | www.548338.com | www.969751.com | www.16878m.com | www.035079.com | www.23040.com | www.756997.com | www.937016.com | www.081wy.com | www.9889hc.com | www.26163z.com | www.80767n.com | www.50064a.com | www.96386x.com | www.303479.com | www.544097.com | www.599416.com | www.816142.com | www.hx2088.com | www.659zf.com | www.cll168.com | www.66376k.com | www.77801a.com | www.57578g.com | www.250552.com | www.202434.com | www.202405.com | www.86267l.com | www.77801c.com | www.43131f.com | www.77802g.com | www.67258b.com | www.66073.cc | www.hjin5.com | www.755016.com | www.wcp777888.com | www.543977.com | www.lcw997.com | www.117015.com | www.89894a.com | www.50024f.com | www.33112k.com | www.3005.am | www.926730.com | www.769179.com | www.436106.com | www.196109.com | www.68568c.com | www.32123k.com | www.00840n.com | www.6fk.com | www.csw288.com | www.506921.com | www.99788o.com | www.62118f.com | www.093wy.com | www.817336.com | www.361576.com | www.36788a.com | www.3005w.com | www.c1395.com | www.549810.com | www.77803f.com | www.5095c.com | www.763236.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.36166q.com | www.qm72.com | www.254568.com | www.87668j.com | www.df76.com | www.083026.com | www.50064j.com | www.qj35.com | www.96386s.com | www.08588t.com | www.786778.com | www.97655g.com | www.5555y.cc | www.488018.com | www.78949b.com | www.979819.com | www.043552.com | www.3933n.cc | www.303470.com | www.52072j.com | www.901187.com | www.52072n.com | www.23040.com | www.163136.com | www.371z.cc | www.280155.com | www.3005v.com | www.506477.com | www.41518k.com | www.620958.com | www.60108k.com | www.711863.com | www.60108m.com | www.yc7701.com | www.82575.com | www.500916.com | www.8839m.com | www.301345.com | www.085wy.com | www.040423.com | www.c139.vip | www.50024t.com | www.355018.com | www.1368.cc | www.083025.com | www.c299.com | www.21202k.com | www.189909.com | www.w725.com | www.39957c.com | www.304110.com | www.cp7768.com | www.83993q.com | www.lcw997.com | www.107ak.com | www.281877.com | www.305922.com | www.cp8009.cc | www.36166j.com | www.54968f.com | www.810609.com | www.7777hv.com | www.50024i.com | www.368200.com | www.cb7188.com | www.11044.cc | www.50074j.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.721662.com | www.091wy.com | www.81678n.com | www.292199.com | www.535666e.com | www.07hc.com | www.3479d.com | www.34788s.com | www.178257.com | www.586113.com | www.983003.com | www.913gc.com | www.12018.cc | www.60108k.com | www.55885o.com | www.202403.com | www.608115.com | www.21202ii.com | www.igcp4.com | www.44clf.com | www.2109u.com | www.6364h.com | www.50026s.com | www.83033c.com | www.99638g.com | www.50024z.com | www.61233k.com | www.71233l.com | www.80075n.com | www.150957.com | www.dwj0066.com | www.399010.com | www.452816.com | www.525059.com | www.514177.com | www.550420.com | www.610958.com | www.656121.com | www.679610.com | www.755745.com | www.609814.com | www.621477.com | www.566217.com | www.541522.com | www.375983.com | www.201882.com | www.83033f.com | www.53900r.com | www.34788e.com | www.88266q.com | www.07163s.com | www.5177.cc | www.yi816.com | www.hw6689.com | www.927576.com | www.673066.com | www.447478.com | www.150883.com | www.50022c.com | www.99788k.com | www.50064c.com | www.50064y.com | www.588yc.com | www.rcw8800.com | www.599424.com | www.202314.com | www.50080u.com | www.15899.cc | www.994696.com | www.547477.com | www.83033z.com | www.50080w.com | www.8mcp.com | www.356477.com | www.52303j.com | www.cll168.com | www.937299.com | www.343177.com | www.26299y.com | www.910xj.com | www.581477.com | www.50052g.com | www.005hy.cc | www.hcw332.com | www.66653y.com | www.hh3890.com | www.273092.com | www.41518f.com | www.xinyc8.com | www.097928.com | www.03882.cc | www.23040.com | www.88266g.com | www.hx1113.com | www.136503.com | www.86889.cc | www.506923.com | www.76520q.com | www.898463.com | www.66653w.com | www.zfcp2.com | www.155233.com | www.2350u.com | www.273092.com | www.8039z.com | www.581237.com | www.34788s.com | www.579699.com | www.33997b.com | www.550414.com | www.50052vip.com | www.308126.com | www.669zf.com | www.186379.com | www.588yc.com | www.115779.com | www.6tdc.com | www.29178f.com | www.640505.com | www.94580.cc | www.68682t.com | www.919725.com | www.43818r.com | www.338057.com | www.22qxc.com | www.76520b.com | www.773976.com | www.74972.com | www.178752.com | www.c137.vip | www.16878b.com | www.101282.com | www.775703.com | www.5484d.com | www.68568l.com | www.645411.com | www.350zf.com | www.52303c.com | www.550806.com | www.dan70.com | www.66376h.com | www.339713.com | www.960883.com | www.7793b.com | www.77802u.com | www.534638.com | www.318548.com | www.6969a.cc | www.50064b.com | www.78949v.com | www.377034.com | www.903117.com | www.ya218.com | www.29178c.com | www.60123c.com | www.234269.com | www.631012.com | www.cp7836.com | www.3333y.cc | www.59988.cc | www.35918t.com | www.39500n.com | www.083019.com | www.377474.com | www.745855.com | www.hcjt8.com | www.022v.cc | www.33031.cc | www.35918s.com | www.80075n.com | www.50051s.com | www.71399s.com | www.137651.com | www.230278.com | www.501264.com | www.590833.com | www.778948.com | www.810526.com | www.896846.com | www.925887.com | www.cp7777p.com | www.943977.com | www.xinyc3.com | www.842686.com | www.808762.com | www.631799.com | www.657666.com | www.533265.com | www.347177.com | www.129985.com | www.60007b.com | www.36787h.com | www.80075g.com | www.16878c.com | www.011ac.com | www.gei30.com | www.535666e.com | www.721588.com | www.592113.com | www.324577.com | www.106726.com | www.49956t.com | www.50026y.com | www.555hy.cc | www.892070.com | www.530126.com | www.112559.com | www.43818e.com | www.25688p.com | www.085wy.com | www.912453.com | www.444165.com | www.71399u.com | www.35918b.com | www.zg80.com | www.550437.com | www.67258d.com | www.12455y.com | www.318548.com | www.456836.com | www.49956z.com | www.5086a.com | www.980158.com | www.231844.com | www.81520l.com | www.zcwf4.com | www.11djcp.com | www.29277o.com | www.tang777.com | www.527990.com | www.41518h.com | www.093wy.com | www.290282.com | www.29277o.com | www.qmkl9.com | www.363477.com | www.61233m.com | www.c4525.com | www.196705.com | www.91954.com | www.23040.com | www.60123c.com | www.33csj.com | www.289971.com | www.9478k.com | www.657832.com | www.26878u.com | www.935026.com | www.68568q.com | www.c6883.com | www.81233b.com | www.109ak.com | www.190883.com | www.202115.com | www.316477.com | www.2109o.com | www.303481.com | www.2373f.com | www.219055.com | www.8000hc.com | www.146656.com | www.ban03.com | www.66332p.com | www.937160.com | www.16878q.com | www.974091.com | www.49956p.com | www.426689.com | www.222hy.cc | www.68689l.com | www.915422.com | www.60108g.com | www.461770.com | www.062wy.com | www.68689l.com | www.730979.com | www.5522h.cc | www.55228h.com | www.652851.com | www.3890c.com | www.73166f.com | www.729987.com | www.3478x.cc | www.29277w.com | www.448910.com | www.hr4888.com | www.35918m.com | www.99788p.com | www.685948.com | www.9889hc.com | www.91233k.com | www.303476.com | www.865065.com | www.111xm.cc | www.50026w.com | www.83033d.com | www.535059.com | www.985026.com | www.5522m.cc | www.61233b.com | www.78949n.com | www.388945.com | www.891477.com | www.bxcp3333.com | www.83565.com | www.33598f.com | www.110832.com | www.528335.com | www.775979.com | www.c5637.com | www.918li.com | www.29277j.com | www.88266n.com | www.60007a.com | www.106056.com | www.226705.com | www.444627.com | www.583877.com | www.763287.com | www.fh7557.com | www.cp718.com | www.qilc5.com | www.669by.com | www.2632d.com | www.9155e.cc | www.6364c.com | www.21202x.com | www.26878h.com | www.36788d.com | www.50080x.com | www.50026n.com | www.52303b.com | www.53911c.com | www.50024z.com | www.35155q.com | www.71789.cc | www.2109c.com | www.878zf.com | www.095wy.com | www.blc8.com | www.874110.com | www.98528f.com | www.542511.com | www.298730.com | www.036874.com | www.53900j.com | www.87668q.com | www.16878f.com | www.2394.com | www.ck7786.com | www.819770.com | www.550164.com | www.186371.com | www.50054p.com | www.49956k.com | www.595hc.com | www.979505.com | www.598966.com | www.187393.com | www.33997j.com | www.05883.cc | www.981090.com | www.560259.com | www.031079.com | www.96386n.com | www.509866.com | www.54968f.com | www.381110.com | www.54400o.com | www.9205f.com | www.982090.com | www.290282.com | www.33997v.com | www.001hy.cc | www.631279.com | www.80065x.com | www.14177.com | www.936370.com | www.191061.com | www.61655g.com | www.bxcp3333.com | www.339132.com | www.77801z.com | www.hy9996.com | www.377823.com | www.87668s.com | www.jx68.com | www.151706.com | www.58688.cc | www.649880.com | www.43818q.com | www.dzh0.com | www.163910.com | www.9155g.com | www.653546.com | www.35918r.com | www.fyyy3.com | www.fh7557.com | www.5086o.com | www.542770.com | www.62118g.com | www.763829.com | www.26878a.com | www.943077.com | www.57578h.com | www.fh7557.com | www.77801a.com | www.ascp0.com | www.87668k.com | www.5ecp.com | www.83033d.com | www.ok95.com | www.61233w.com | www.799666aa.com | www.80075v.com | www.hjin8.com | www.52303y.com | www.933345.com | www.33588r.com | www.707619.com | www.34788n.com | www.397477.com | www.23040.com | www.95999w.com | www.cb7388.com | www.21202o.com | www.606297.com | www.9889hc.com | www.083016.com | www.943977.com | www.60007x.com | www.364277.com | www.tx65.com | www.77803p.com | www.401267.com | www.ybao1.com | www.81233s.com | www.335324.com | www.ch8123.com | www.50024k.com | www.178379.com | www.897957.com | www.9478t.com | www.77803c.com | www.687044.com | www.371n.cc | www.26299j.com | www.338995.com | www.943077.com | www.5086u.com | www.39500s.com | www.361979.com | www.968566.com | www.3933s.cc | www.80075x.com | www.106265.com | www.599748.com | www.c2813.com | www.3933e.cc | www.77803r.com | www.91233z.com | www.444739.com | www.810277.com | www.gyfc5.com | www.3668r.com | www.71399c.com | www.66332x.com | www.207882.com | www.548338.com | www.781367.com | www.c1959.com | www.105ak.com | www.8039c.com | www.60007w.com | www.36788d.com | www.83033k.com | www.196087.com | www.568380.com | www.584611.com | www.738500.com | www.901068.com | www.am6543.com | www.ya002.com | www.055i.cc | www.2632s.com | www.6611e.cc | www.3005w.com | www.91091.cc | www.9818l.cc | www.08992.com | www.44050.cc | www.6832s.com | www.6364f.com | www.3478t.cc | www.022p.cc | www.080wy.com | www.ok52.com | www.al5888.com | www.965666.com | www.909361.com | www.862810.com | www.621312.com | www.530396.com | www.258120.com | www.88065f.com | www.51515t.com | www.86267w.com | www.33598k.com | www.2408d.com | www.bxcp3333.com | www.921599.com | www.634880.com | www.472255.com | www.177584.com | www.76520r.com | www.80075w.com | www.8816x.com | www.ya499.com | www.879869.com | www.550284.com | www.137651.com | www.36166b.com | www.00840j.com | www.ji224.com | www.755914.com | www.335484.com | www.52072l.com | www.66530.cc | www.c71.cc | www.509866.com | www.73166j.com | www.26163m.com | www.fh7557.com | www.599380.com | www.84499u.com | www.34788d.com | www.ztc7.com | www.511647.com | www.60108n.com | www.5091y.com | www.843633.com | www.155792.com | www.50788g.com | www.c5127.com | www.339786.com | www.95222w.com | www.zch2.com | www.lcw997.com | www.87668s.com | www.bxcp5.com | www.330291.com | www.65707p.com | www.wcp686.com | www.178759.com | www.81455.com | www.755216.com | www.71233u.com | www.910xj.com | www.djcp001.com | www.68568k.com | www.938537.com | www.73736f.com | www.58ipo.com | www.289917.com | www.82676.com | www.584511.com | www.81520t.com | www.806721.com | www.33997m.com | www.975627.com | www.68568b.com | www.c4534.com | www.83033t.com | www.lqc8.com | www.80075y.com | www.qm72.com | www.81233m.com | www.caim3.com | www.78949l.com | www.ch8567.com | www.43131z.com | www.865850.com | www.81233l.com | www.626310.com | www.45565.cc | www.210955.com | www.5xch.com | www.50052c.com | www.791571.com | www.39500d.com | www.364343.com | www.84gcw.com | www.65707q.com | www.770951.com | www.08588t.com | www.202406.com | www.hm3666.com | www.86267g.com | www.475711.com | www.08czj.com | www.33588h.com | www.xinyc8.com | www.084wy.com | www.33598k.com | www.535350.com | www.bai355.com | www.88266c.com | www.324677.com | www.777337a.com | www.26878b.com | www.96386y.com | www.672866.com | www.528qx.com | www.00665g.com | www.292726.com | www.933709.com | www.3933p.cc | www.35155s.com | www.332037.com | www.897957.com | www.1035q.com | www.07163u.com | www.275073.com | www.690802.com | www.ybao4.com | www.57169.cc | www.33598f.com | www.111307.com | www.589196.com | www.955494.com | www.055m.cc | www.26299w.com | www.43131z.com | www.083039.com | www.431776.com | www.rcw8855.com | www.hcjt2.com | www.918jo.com | www.26299j.com | www.98528f.com | www.67258c.com | www.150822.com | www.375951.com | www.606643.com | www.810629.com | www.987426.com | www.ck09.com | www.38wcp.com | www.088wy.com | www.5086f.com | www.00840b.com | www.50024r.com | www.68689x.com | www.84499r.com | www.23636h.com | www.33588x.com | www.44458c.com | www.41518o.com | www.50080x.com | www.54400c.com | www.66652m.com | www.71399t.com | www.71233g.com | www.61233t.com | www.50732h.com | www.34788l.com | www.99638l.com | www.66376f.com | www.41518l.com | www.9155g.com | www.3933w.cc | www.065wy.com | www.hjin2.com | www.946380.com | www.811756.com | www.xinyc8.com | www.451117.com | www.209713.com | www.80767x.com | www.16878t.com | www.25688g.com | www.696by.com | www.hm3999.com | www.771246.com | www.377507.com | www.012288.com | www.33112r.com | www.78995.com | www.070wy.com | www.901387.com | www.534638.com | www.91233r.com | www.81233d.com | www.2350w.com | www.122888a.com | www.594211.com | www.031079.com | www.78700m.com | www.002hy.cc | www.816464.com | www.307075.com | www.35155x.com | www.3416g.com | www.902261.com | www.383566.com | www.50024q.com | www.3933j.cc | www.832795.com | www.190883.com | www.68689h.com | www.ya190.com | www.558429.com | www.54968g.com | www.781566.com | www.721709.com | www.81520z.com | www.8039z.com | www.825799.com | www.091069.com | www.51558.com | www.839658.com | www.88266k.com | www.9889hc.com | www.513550.com | www.68568v.com | www.100v.cc | www.536210.com | www.83993d.com | www.c5906.com | www.126509.com | www.6364l.com | www.609815.com | www.26878n.com | www.c5906.com | www.99788p.com | www.022sd.cc | www.54968f.com | www.36788b.com | www.687198.com | www.89894r.com | www.901172.com | www.50024e.com | www.269777a.com | www.77114z.com | www.ycp0.com | www.83993j.com | www.gei30.com | www.076591.com | www.085wy.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.ya278.com | www.97655m.com | www.22tdc.com | www.81233k.com | www.ascp1.com | www.50732a.com | www.hcw266.com | www.12455i.com | www.731996.com | www.50054z.com | www.529106.com | www.5441n.com | www.186793.com | www.czg2.com | www.35918l.com | www.729198.com | www.07163j.com | www.230967.com | www.hczx6.com | www.15355o.com | www.581209.com | www.088wy.com | www.71399g.com | www.768997.com | www.9818n.cc | www.063911.com | www.912254.com | www.52303y.com | www.231844.com | www.987425.com | www.50080t.com | www.196903.com | www.923599.com | www.20016.cc | www.80075k.com | www.648148.com | www.8000hc.com | www.08588z.com | www.yc7701.com | www.luck887.com | www.8039i.com | www.53900c.com | www.505680.com | www.cb5388.com | www.14177.com | www.52303k.com | www.423770.com | www.949498.com | www.5441p.com | www.23579b.com | www.rcw321.com | www.599840.com | www.979738.com | www.1035h.com | www.80075b.com | www.81233e.com | www.368200.com | www.rcw8811.com | www.32czj.com | www.9149d.com | www.00840m.com | www.88266p.com | www.320992.com | www.xinyc8.com | www.858899.com | www.aa3479.com | www.288hc.com | www.89798.com | www.80065l.com | www.51331k.com | www.98528i.com | www.230757.com | www.444072.com | www.601497.com | www.762918.com | www.910282.com | www.cp8009.cc | www.gczj3.com | www.66qxc.com | www.055l.cc | www.575hc.com | www.6832j.com | www.8816r.com | www.35733.com | www.igcp0.com | www.32123l.com | www.50052q.com | www.60123s.com | www.66332x.com | www.61655m.com | www.52303q.com | www.15355j.com | www.781566.com | www.984jc.com |