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              商周牧野之戰揭秘

              時間:2018-12-12  來源:新浪博客  作者:佚名    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                戰爭的根源要再追溯到幾百年前。公元前十三世紀左右,由于全球氣候的劇烈變動,一場民族大遷徙像暴風一樣席卷了整個亞歐大陸,各游牧民族紛紛從廣袤的中部草原侵入到四周的農耕文明區,呈波紋狀擴散開來,引起了一連串的改變整個世界的連鎖反應。在希臘,多利安人南下伯羅奔尼撒半島,毀滅了正欣欣向榮的邁錫尼文明;在小亞細亞,被稱為“海上民族”的幾支蠻族摧毀了赫梯帝國,進而騷擾埃及邊境,并最終導致了埃及“新王國”的覆滅;在印度,雅利安人也越過興都庫什山進入印度河流域,征服了當地的達羅毗荼人;同一時期的東亞,一支強大的游牧民族從蒙古高原南下,占據了今天的陜西、山西北部,對當時正處于鼎盛期的商王朝形成了巨大威脅,在后來的華夏文獻中,他們被稱為“鬼方”,也就是后來匈奴人的祖先。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                與后世儒家經典的理想描述不同,商朝并不是一個“大一統”王朝。實際上,在當時的中原大地上,操漢藏語、突厥語、蒙古-通古斯語和南島語的各種族、部落犬牙交錯,時時流動,有的已經進入農耕文明,有的還是游牧民族。商朝是其中最開化和最強大的政治組織,商王自稱受“上帝”之命統治世界,但直接統治范圍其實只有都城附近方圓幾百公里,稱為“王畿”。此外是許多臣服于商的“方國”,他們對商王有納貢和從征的義務,但是內政不受干涉。再以外,就是根本不承認或不知道商朝至高地位的“蠻夷”了,防范、消滅和征服他們是商代軍事活動的主旋律。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                鬼方的入侵改變了東方世界的實力對比。商高宗武丁時期,商朝與鬼方多次激戰,雖然一時擊退了鬼方,卻未能消滅其根本。此后直到商亡,鬼方仍不時出沒騷擾,其他各蠻族也乘機作亂,長期戰爭中,商朝的實力逐漸削弱。面對游牧民族來無影去無蹤的威脅,商人后來采取了“以夷制夷”的策略,扶植臣屬的周國去征討其他蠻族。結果養虎成患,反而使得周人實力壯大。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周人發跡后,自稱是正牌的華夏貴胄,夏朝以后才不幸“沒于戎狄”。不過,現代史學家多認為周人最初與周邊羌、戎各族并無區別,同樣是西北游牧民族的一支。據考,他們本居于山西的汾河流域,周文王的祖父古公父為首領時,受到鬼方的壓迫,南遷到岐山之下的周原。那里土地肥沃,周人遂改游牧為農耕,向商朝稱臣納貢,并仿效文化,建立城郭,設置官制,成為一個新興方國。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                周人兼有華夏和戎狄的雙面優勢,因而在錯綜復雜的各派勢力之間如魚得水,迅速發展壯大。古公父之子季歷繼任首領后,得到商王武乙的召見和賞賜,命他出師討伐今陜西中北部的西落鬼戎(鬼方的一支)。季歷出兵大獲全勝,甚至捕獲了對方的主要首領。此后十幾年,季歷又接連以王命的名義,征服和吞并了周圍不少蠻族部落,因戰功被商王文丁封為“牧師(諸侯之長)”。周國的勢力急劇膨脹,甚至侵入到南方的江、漢一帶。傳說季歷的兄弟太伯、仲雍“讓位”給季歷,自己“遠竄荊蠻”,太伯還成了吳國的開國之君。不過據史學家考證,這個動人的故事不過為了掩飾周人在長江流域的殖民擴張而已。但周國的擴張還是引起了文丁的警覺,后來他將季歷囚禁處死。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                季歷死后,世子姬昌繼位,時約前1100年。《竹書紀年》載,姬昌即位初年,為報父仇而出兵伐商,但商朝實力尚在,周國沒討到什么便宜。此后,姬昌不得不韜光隱曜,臣服于商,還從商朝娶了一位貴族小姐為妻,但卻難以消除商朝的猜忌。商王帝辛(名紂,即后世所稱的紂王)繼位后,為翦除日漸強大的幾個方國,羅織罪名殺了好幾個諸侯國君,同時也將姬昌幽禁于里(今河南湯陰附近)長達七年。后來,周國卑躬屈膝,一再進貢美女珠寶,帝辛才赦免了姬昌。姬昌也很乖覺,一遇赦就主動割讓洛西之地,以解除商朝對自己的疑忌。果然,帝辛“龍顏大悅”,封他為“西伯”,甚至賜給他弓矢斧鉞(象征征伐權),放他回國。EpZ歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                按說,帝辛既然猜忌姬昌,縱然開恩釋放,又何至于給他征伐權然后放虎歸山?這還得從帝辛本人說起。據《史記·殷本紀》,帝辛“資辯捷疾,聞見甚敏;材力過人,手格猛獸;知足以拒諫,言足以飾非,矜人臣以能,高天下以聲,以為皆出己之下”,又說他“好酒淫樂,嬖于婦人”。除去史官的有意貶損之辭,不難看到,這位商朝的末代君主其實是一個聰穎勇武、才華橫溢、性情剛烈而又過于自負的人物。據史書中的一些零星記載以及殷墟甲骨提供的線索,此時,江、淮之間的東夷發動叛亂,成為對商朝的最主要威脅,帝辛也將注意力集中在東南方,他認為西邊的周國畢竟只是蕞爾小邦,沒有顛覆大商的實力,但是仇隙既在,難保不乘機作亂。賦予姬昌征伐權并放他歸國,不但暫時可以綏靖周國,而且能誘使他出兵討伐諸鄰國,造成兩敗俱傷的局面,以保證商朝后方的穩定。

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