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              一個熟悉而陌生的名詞:軍國主義起源于普魯士

              時間:2019-01-06  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                軍隊還對普魯士的社會發展和階級結構具有深刻的影響。平民中產階級仍然是順從的,實際上把整個地主貴族(容克)吸收進軍事機構已成為統治者的政策。他們自覺地利用軍隊作為在克累弗、勃蘭登堡、波美拉尼亞和前條頓騎士團領地的地主家庭中灌輸“全普魯士”心理的工具。普魯士是一個非常年青、人為的領地聯合體,這就使忠誠于它的感情最初并不是自然的,為此更需要依靠明顯的軍事手段來加以灌輸。灌輸的重點內容是放在義務、服從、服務和犧牲上。除上述因素外,軍事美德之所以成為整個普魯士男性貴族的特點,也還應歸因于該國人口數量少。例如在法國,大約有五萬名男性成年貴族,但其中只有少數人經常在軍隊任軍官。而在普魯士,幾乎所有的容克家族總有成員是穿制服的。84f歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                此外,大選帝侯及其繼承者,也像所有專制主義統治者一樣,對于以地主貴族為主要成員的等級會議即各地議會實行壓制。為了平息大地主的不滿,統治者允許在軍隊中對地主階級的成員授予官職,還允許他們對自己的農民可以為所欲為。普魯士君主國在很大程度上是建立在統治者與地主鄉紳間的諒解之上的,即后者同意承認統治者的政府,并愿意在他的軍隊中服役;但作為回報,統治者允許地主鄉紳繼續把自己的農民置于世襲受支配的地位。農奴制在普魯士就如在東歐各地一樣盛行。在東普魯士,農民的境況與波蘭農民一樣悲慘。84f歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                普魯士的統治者認為,容克地主可以成為較好的軍官,因為他們是在管轄自己的農民的習慣中長大的。為了維護軍官階級,法律禁止出售“貴族”土地,即禁止將采邑售給非貴族的人。在法國,則又形成對比,采邑權利簡單地變成了財產形式,資產階級,甚至農民也都可以合法地取得采邑,并享有一筆領主的或“封建貴族”的收益。在普魯士,這是不可能的;由于擁有不可變更的財產形式,各個階級被凍結了。因此,中產階級的人很難借助從事地主貴族的職業而進入貴族行列。總之資產階級簡直沒有什么獨立精神。在東普魯士幾乎沒有什么德國的老城鎮。普魯士的中產階級并不富有,擁有的私人財產也不大。典型的中產階級分子是官員,他為政府工作,擔任龐大的王室產業或依靠國家津貼的企業的雇員或租借人。普魯士的文官,從大選帝侯時代以來,就以其正直和效率而著稱。但是普魯士的中產階級比起其他地方的中產階級來,對貴族更為順從,對國家更為忠誠,對軍隊則是更加望而生畏。84f歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              普魯士崛起84f歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                普魯士的這些特點在弗里德里希·威廉一世統治下進一步得到了發展。威廉一世從1713年至1740年擔任國主。他是—個現實而粗俗的人。他鄙視一切帶有“文化”氣息的事物,而他的父親和祖父(大選帝侯),以及他的兒子(弗里德里希大帝)對此卻都十分關注。他對不是花于軍隊的每一分錢都十分吝惜。他把皇家費用削減四分之三。他在赴柯尼斯堡舉行加冕典禮的路程上,花掉兩千五百四十七個銀幣,而他父親為此曾經花了銀幣五百萬。他以一種德意志父親般的方式統治國家,像對私人采邑一樣監督國家,時常穿一件破舊制服潛行于柏林大街小巷,用手杖來懲戒玩忽職守的市民。他整天工作,也希望人人這樣做。84f歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                他愛護軍隊,所制定的全部政策都是為軍隊服務的。他是一直身著制服露面的第一位普魯士國王。他重新安排了宮廷禮儀程序,尊軍官而抑文官。他對高個子兵士的喜愛是聞名于世的;他成立一個特別分隊,成員都有六七英尺高,是來自歐洲各地,而彼得大帝的確也從亞洲給他送來幾位。他規定出新的訓練形式和演習形式,創立一所訓練容克地主子弟的士官生學校,并確立了新的招募制度,根據這個制度,每個團都有一個特別區或州作為指定的兵源地區(這種招募制在歐洲長期以來一直都是最有效的)。他建立的軍隊,在他登位時為四萬人,到他逝世時增加到八萬三千人。他在位期間,柏林發展成為擁有十萬人口的城市,其中兩萬是兵士,這個比例也許在歐洲是超過任何其他城市的。他還留給他的繼承者一筆為數達七百萬銀幣的軍費(因為他實際上沒有親自作過戰)。84f歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                弗里德里希二世(后稱弗里德里希大帝,也譯腓特烈大帝,1740年登位)就是依靠這支軍隊和這筆軍費使歐洲大吃了一驚。奧地利的查理六世逝世不久,他的女兒瑪麗亞·特蕾西亞開始繼承各種權利。整個歐洲對“國事詔書”的保證采取騎墻態度。當其他國家還在等待時,弗里德里希便開始進攻了。他沒有發出通知就調動軍隊進入西里西亞,霍亨索倫家族曾對西里西亞提出過古老而含糊的要求。西里西亞位于奧得河上游,是面向波蘭一側的波希米亞王國的一部分,北鄰勃蘭登堡。西里西亞加入普魯士王國幾乎使人口增加一倍,并且增加了有價值的工業,從而普魯士終于建成為一個大國,擁有六百萬人口和弗里德里希建立的?支二十萬人軍隊。必須補充指出,如果單從人類的成就來判斷,那么普魯士是一個非凡的創舉,是一個靠小本經營而建成的國家,是辛勤工作和認真責任所換得的勝利。84f歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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              文章標簽:軍國主義  普魯士  專制主義


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