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              舊日本如何強化軍國主義:擅用教科書“洗腦”

              時間:2019-01-06  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                東京都立大學教授山住正在其著述《教科書》中曾描述說:“在日本,教科書不僅被看做是對孩子們進行系統教育的讀物,還被當成帶領著孩子成長的火車頭,更是日本教育的‘證據’……日本戰前就是在教室里面用教科書培養‘軍國少年’的。”BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                利用作文檢查“洗腦”結果BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                日本一橋大學教授中內敏夫在《軍國美談與教科書》中對戰前教科書的作用說得非常透徹:“戰前,日本的教科書可以概括稱為‘軍事教材’,把‘軍國美談’和‘戰時佳話’用通俗易懂的方式編寫出來,宣傳‘忠君愛國’的思想。這種教材首先以‘通俗教育’的名義進入日本學校的社會教育科目,然后不斷地進行修訂,成為一種思想道德的教材。”看一看渡邊哲彥在1936年編寫的《軍隊教育的研究》,即可以知道舊日本軍隊在教科書的使用上“慎之又慎”,他們編寫教科書的“指導目標”,就是要“宣傳日本軍隊和軍事行為的正當性和永久性”。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                二戰前日本陸軍設有諸如陸軍士官學校、陸軍幼年學校、陸軍航空士官學校、陸軍經理學校、陸軍預科士官學校、滿洲國陸軍軍官學校、陸軍大學校等軍校。日本海軍也有海軍兵學校、海軍經理學校、海軍機關學校、海軍大學校等軍校。這些學校給學生使用的教科書,就是一種“洗腦”的教科書。比如,陸軍幼年學校國語教科書中有反映日俄戰爭時期“軍神”乃木希典的課文《靖國神社》、有介紹海軍戰役的課文《水師營會見》,有記述軍國主義家庭情感的課文《水兵之母》。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                東京教育大教授篠田融回憶自己戰前在陸軍預科士官學校任教的時候,特別注重對學生寫作文能力的培養。在他看來,首先讓學生反復閱讀“國語、漢語、本邦史”的教科書,然后在此基礎上練習寫作文,“最可以看出學生思想發展的軌跡”。他承認,當時日本就是用這種模式,通過學生作文檢查“洗腦”的結果。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              考試更突出軍國主義教育BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                有教科書,就要有考試。考試不僅是對教科書內容的一種“復印性的重復”,更是對教科書內容的一種思想性強化。進入到大正、昭和年間后,日本軍人勢力變得越發強大,被稱作軍隊干部培訓搖籃的陸軍士官學校和海軍兵學校在重視教科書的同時,還在入學考試里增添了許多帶有軍國主義色彩、國粹色彩的問題。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              日本軍國主義BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                1920年,東京陸軍中央幼年學校改名為陸軍士官學校預科,陸軍士官學校變成陸軍士官學校本科。同年,陸軍士官學校預科入學考試的讀解題里,就出現這樣的內容——“觀察東洋大勢,鄰邦支那不斷發生內亂,國勢不振,波斯、暹羅在茍延殘喘地維持著獨立,但早晚都會像印度、西伯利亞等一樣,被他國侵略。立于此間,應該由誰來維持東洋和平,為世界文明做貢獻呢?”這里,無疑是暗示學生們回答“日本”。許多參與指揮盧溝橋事變、侵華戰爭、太平洋戰爭的日本軍干部,都是該校畢業的學生,包括甲級戰犯松井石根、陸軍元帥寺內壽一、日本首相小磯國昭、陸軍大臣杉山元等。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                1937年,陸軍預科士兵學校的入學考試上,還出現過這樣一個問題。“日本戰爭開端,是在中國奉天發生的滿洲事變。在事變當時,滿洲勢力最大的人是誰?盧溝橋事變發生在哪年哪月哪日?我軍奮起的理由是什么?”在同年發行的《陸軍士官學校》一書中,該問題被作為模擬題選入其中,并且列出最佳答案。勢力最大的人自然是“張學良”,事發時間是“昭和六年9月18日”,“日本軍奮起”的理由是“無論是在歷史上還是在條約上,我國在滿洲都享有正當的權力和利益。但是支那將滿洲作為自己的領土,把我國應該享有的特殊權力和利益,說成是侵略領土、破壞主權,而且對條約視而不見,妨礙我國人在滿洲租借土地,自由居住,蹂躪我國在森林、礦業上的諸多權利等,為了擁護國權,我皇軍一躍而起。”BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                顯然,這種答案就是把日本挑起“九一八事變”一事正當化,并且讓未來的軍隊干部候選人在入學前就把“正確答案”背下來。同時,也是鼓勵這些人日后在中國大陸和太平洋上大肆殺戮。陸軍士官學校的試題如此,海軍兵學校的入學試題也是如此。在1921年的入學考試歷史問卷中,有這樣一道題,“請簡明闡述一下朝鮮、臺灣、樺太、關東州以及南洋群島,是如何納入我國政府統治下的。”這段時期日本海軍兵學校的畢業生,有日本駐美國大使野村吉三郎、在遠東國際軍事法庭受審期間病死獄中的海軍大臣永野修身、日本首相米內光政以及聯合艦隊司令官山本五十六。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                戰后日本逃避近現代史教育BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                戰前日本學校特別是軍校注重通過教科書以及作文、考試等給學生培養軍國主義精神,那么戰后呢?一名長期從事教育研究的日本國會議員告訴《環球時報》記者:戰后日本教科書上雖然有近現代史內容,但老師基本不會在課堂上講授。通常在長篇大套講完古代史以后,便以“沒有時間”為借口,讓學生“自學”近現代史內容。日本每年高考的試題里面幾乎沒有近現代史內容,理由是“里面有很多是沒有定論的。”值得注意的是,對于日本過去侵略外國的歷史,日本教育界正在從“不講”“不考”轉向教科書的“刪除”,試圖抹掉這段歷史,這同樣也是一種洗腦。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                2014年春季,“數研出版社”在新出版的教科書中刪除有關“隨軍慰安婦”“強征”等字眼。表面上看,在修改教科書問題上,似乎是出版社“主動”,政府“被動”。事實上日本文部科學省在2014年1月修改教科書審定標準,要求教育界在“沒有定論的歷史、領土”問題上適度體現政府官方主張。教科書出版社可在“發現錯誤”或“事實產生變化時”向文部科學省申請修改教科書內容。正因為這樣,經過將近一年的努力,“數研出版”才首先站出來,一方面是回應政府的“號召”,另一方面是給業內的同行做榜樣。BLa歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              未標明來源于“歷史春秋網”的稿件均為轉載,版權歸原作者所有。如本文內容影響到您的合法權益(含文章中內容、圖片等),請與我們聯系,我們將及時處理。 聯系郵箱:6465372@qq.com;QQ:6465372

              文章標簽:日本  日本史  軍國主義


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