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              古代皇帝飲食有什么規矩,和平民百姓食物的區別?

              時間:2019-03-05  來源:古建中國  作者:佚名    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

              《禮記》云“飲食男女,人之大欲存焉。”飲食,作為人類生存最基本的需求,在中國歷史早期便被迫與國家政治相連。《周禮》中關于不同階級飲食禮儀上的規定可謂多如牛毛,不勝枚舉。無數歷史名人的命運亦隨著飲食起起落落:商代伊尹“負鼎俎,以滋味說湯,致于王道”,靠廚藝這塊敲門磚走上了人生巔峰;周亞夫則因漢景帝賜宴時為他“獨置大胔(無骨大塊整肉),無切肉,又不置箸”而“心不平,怏怏而去”最終君臣失和。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              夠了,夠了,實在是看厭了波詭云譎的政治,讓我們回歸溫香軟糯的食物本身。古人力于農耕,卻常常掙扎于溫飽線上,難談美食。那貴為一國之君的天子呢?他們的餐桌上,又究竟擺放著哪些珍饈美味?N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              滿族食俗與清宮御膳配圖N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              滿族食俗與清宮御膳配圖N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              一、普通的餐桌N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              一提到天子的飲食,我們瞬間聯想到的往往是一餐百余道菜,“吃垮”大清的慈禧。但當我們真正翻看現存的天子食譜《清宮御膳檔》時,也許會十分驚訝:皇帝的餐桌并不以珍奇見長,呈列的幾乎都是百姓平日所食之物,連咸菜豆腐都屢見不鮮。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              歷代天子飲食多不重奇。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              北宋皇室“飲食不貴異味,御廚止用羊肉”,官修的《政和本草》將羊肉與人參并列“人參補氣,羊肉補形”,宋神宗年間公眾日均消耗羊肉1200斤以上。此時之羊并非如先代高居廟堂,而是遍布江湖之遠,蘇軾詩云“剪毛胡羊大如馬,誰記鹿角馨盤筵”,宋人食羊之盛,可見一斑。南宋偏處東南,羊肉難得,天子便同常人一般大食螃蟹,宋孝宗號稱“蟹癡”,曾因食蟹過多患上痢疾。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              朱元璋(1328年—1398年)N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              明代則因太祖朱元璋出身寒微,恐后世子孫不知民間疾苦,為后世子孫定下規矩,用餐時除精致飲食外,“民間時令小菜、小食亦必集”,囊括了苦菜、蒲公英、雜豆、麥粥等多種普通食物。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              清代皇室偏好口味清淡鮮美的蘇州菜,尤以康熙、乾隆為盛,乾隆甚至將蘇菜名廚張東官破例由蘇州織造府選入父子世代相傳的御廚隊伍中,將其封為七品官,每日頭道菜必由張氏所做,出宮巡游也必帶此人。而究張氏拿手的“蘇造肉”,也不過是東坡肉的變種;傳入民間后,百姓無錢買肉,將其手法用于烹調豬內臟,再加上火燒,便成了大名鼎鼎的北京小吃——鹵煮火燒。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              二、精致的餐桌N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              御膳普通而精致,普通的是食材,精致的是選材、烹調。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              就清代而言,御膳對食材的品種、產地、時令、鮮活甚至是采摘、屠宰方法都要求頗嚴,僅日常使用的調和油便有十余種之多。豐富的食材重在飲食均衡,所謂“五谷為養,五果為助,五畜為益,五菜為充”,天子的主食中雜糧占到了相當大的比例,每日餐后還要食用應季水果;在特定日子里,天子也會戒除葷腥,茹素度日。有的天子本人對食材也相當挑剔,康熙曾講他所食之物“必待其成熟之時始食之”;乾隆更是考究,春天榆樹發芽他要求吃榆錢餑餑,初夏新麥灌漿抽穗他要吃新麥“捻轉”(長條狀食物),盛夏喜食茄子扁豆,常年食用鴨子,以其性陰,可降處理政務的心燥。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              烹飪一道,食材固然重要,關鍵還在于烹調之人。御廚的烹飪是一種藝術,能達到所謂“精妙微纖,口弗能言,志不能喻”的境界。這有時需要極高超的技術,如乾隆喜食鴨子,御廚便把鴨子整個去骨,留下完整“滴水不漏”的帶肉皮囊,再填上八中食材,煮五個小時后,仍是一只不失形狀的完整鴨子,這便成了乾隆最愛的“八寶鴨”。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              有時需要人文氣息,如清宮有一味“縐紗餛飩”,以方形皮象征地,團狀餡象征天,包在一起便是天地未分的混沌世界,縐紗則指半透明的餛飩皮,一鍋煮出,仿佛整個宇宙盡在其中。有時需要一點創意,蘇造菜大師張東官拿手的“櫻桃肉”便是將豬肉切成未分離的小塊烹煮七八個小時,然后用紅曲點睛其上,艷若櫻桃。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              三、規矩的餐桌N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              偌大帝國最好的狀態便是穩定,帝國權力中樞的宮廷更是秩序井然,即使天子本人也不能恣意妄為,這在餐桌上也有所體現。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              明代重祖制,自明太祖于洪武元年將櫻桃、梅、杏、鰣魚、雉定為四月供奉太廟的“薦新儀物”后,便預示了后世子孫的一場噩夢。永樂年間,明成祖遷都北京后,沿用諸物祭祀。其他還好說,鰣魚僅產于長江,朝廷便在南京設“鰣魚廠”主管鰣魚捕撈和運輸,于每年五月十五祭祀過明太祖和馬皇后,便將鰣魚用層層冰雪覆蓋,裝于黃布遮蓋的運船中,火速送往北京,必須與六月底到達,七月一日供奉太廟,然后皇帝必須食用。這一過程復雜繁冗,而皇帝吃到嘴里的鰣魚,經過將近月余的折騰,又沒有冰箱冷庫保鮮,此時的個中滋味,恐怕也只有天子才能夠了解……N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              清代宮廷按照滿族習慣,天子每日進早晚兩膳。清代皇帝按祖制普遍于四點鐘左右便早起,早膳安排在清晨六七點鐘,晚膳在下午一兩點;早膳前和晚膳后各有一次點心加餐,皇帝可隨時傳喚。到了晚上六點多,尚有一次酒膳,僅有小吃夜宵,不設大魚大肉。對于成年自律性強的天子,這樣的制度自然科學有效,個別皇帝還會自主加強約束,如乾隆每日晨起,都要先喝一碗冰糖燕窩粥,以助養生。而少年天子往往難耐固定時間的約束,如同治便常常私下出宮獵奇。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              乾隆皇帝漢服圖N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              四、靈活的餐桌N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              宮中飲食固然精致,但往往一味求穩,靈活、創新不足,天子不耐規矩時,也常常會尋找靈活的補充途徑。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              宋代宮廷盛行宮外取食,即遣人于宮外購買食物回宮享用。宋代天子不似前代般小心翼翼,在飲食上更為灑脫,兼之汴京、臨安美食薈萃,此制盛極一時。宋真宗大宴群臣時,曾遣人至汴京市場上沽酒;仁宗也常于各店肆買食;到了徽宗宣和年間,商販們聚集皇宮酸棗門,專等天子傳喚購買“晨輝門外設看位一所,前以荊棘圍繞,周回越五七十步,都下賣鵪鶉骨饳兒、白腸、水晶鲙……荔枝諸般市合,團團密擺,準備御前所喚”。等到高宗南渡,汴梁名廚不少隨軍南下,這些北宋舊人于臨安城中仿效舊時呼和,吸引了高宗注意,很快便被天子點名選購,并獲得厚賜,臨安宮外迅速再現汴京輝煌,和寧門外“早市買賣,市井最盛……遇有宣喚收買,即時貢進。”N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              宋朝的繁華鬧市N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              明清天子受約束較多,宮闈森嚴,不復宋時盛況。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              明代天子久居深宮,難得出游,其飲食上的靈活更多體現在個人愛好上。如永樂皇帝喜食羊肉,正德愛吃灌腸,隆慶嗜好驢腸、果餅,天啟鐘愛乳娘客氏掌勺菜肴,崇禎則雅好燕窩羹。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              清代皇帝受滿族傳統影響,天子出行自由度較高,于宮外靈活飲食的機會也更多。康熙在親征噶爾丹途中,曾親手獵鹿,烤鹿肝享用,并傳喚寧夏面食、水果;在黃河畔保德駐蹕時,更是帶隨從大捕黃河鯉魚恣情享用,還寫信給留京太子講述鯉魚的鮮美。乾隆爺酷愛狩獵,一次于木蘭秋狝后,命手下烤制鹿肉享用,并由西洋畫師繪圖留念;下江南巡游時,慕名微服至蘇州寒山寺平常僧廚烹調的素菜,大快朵頤后稱贊“蔬食殊可口,勝鹿脯、熊掌萬萬。”N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              乾隆帝南巡圖(局部)N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              天子飲食固然勝過民間萬萬,但萬變不離其宗,妙手御廚在刀與火之間創造的奇跡,用的還是普通果蔬。廣廈千間,夜眠僅需六尺;家財萬貫,日食不過三餐。飲食之道,不在精奇,重在適度、均衡。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              世事多艱,千載易逝。當我們摩挲泛黃書頁時,人間的那一抹煙火氣穿越時空縈繞指尖,帶來心頭的一絲慰藉:或許,在那些冰冷名字之后,他們心中都有一塊柔軟的地方。N5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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              文章標簽:古代皇帝  飲食男女  朱元璋  宋太宗


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