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              發明象棋韜光養晦的千古一帝,若非短命恐早已統一中國

              時間:2019-04-22  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:陸棄    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                人生如棋,步步驚心。歷史上有這樣一位帝王,他不但發明了象棋,而且將自己人生的每一步,都進行了精準的計算:瞞天過海除權臣,交結南北穩乾坤,三年一劍強敵滅,殘棋未了留后人。可嘆天不假年,他過早地因病辭世了。如果上天再給他幾年時間,很有可能歷史上會再出現一位秦皇、漢武式的英雄人物,他就是北周武帝宇文邕。eDD歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              eDD歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                宇文邕出生在一個帝王之家,他的父親便是西魏的權相宇文泰,他的兩位哥哥,一個是周孝閔帝宇文覺,一個是周明帝宇文毓,而他即將成為兩位哥哥之后的第三位北周皇帝,外觀上來看,宇文邕是何等的幸運,前途一片光明。但實際上,宇文邕卻是生活在危機四伏的環境中,隨時就有生命危險。北周是篡魏得來,宇文泰去世前,因為兒子們年幼,將大權交到了侄子宇文護手里,囑托他好好保住宇文家打下的江山。宇文護很“對得起”他這位叔叔,先后擁立了兩任堂弟為帝,又先后弒殺了兩位“不聽話”的堂弟天子。而宇文邕,便是他擁立的第三位堂弟帝王。是步兩位哥哥后塵慘遭毒手,還是利用智慧保住性命干一番事業,嚴酷的現實擺在宇文邕面前。eDD歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                兩位哥哥是怎么死的?一個原因,不滿宇文護專權,不甘心當宇文護的傀儡皇帝,急于收回權力,謀事不周,反遭其害。就象三國漢獻帝下“衣帶詔”想殺曹操一樣,談何容易?惹了曹操,死路一條。宇文護與宇文覺、宇文毓雖是兄弟,但在生命與權力面前,親情是何等之薄。我不殺你,你就會殺我。與其等你殺我,不如我先殺你。宇文家族都是鮮卑人,并未受儒家三綱五常深刻影響,弒君之名與自己的生命比起來,顯然后者會占了上風。宇文邕成為宇文護擁立的第三任皇帝,照樣面臨兩位哥哥同樣的危險。eDD歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                宇文邕繼位做北周皇帝時,剛剛十八歲。為了避免兩位哥哥的不幸命運,他睿智地選擇了隱忍,不只對宇文護恭恭敬敬,心甘情愿地讓他掌握朝政、軍事大權,而且率領皇族對宇文護的母親行家人長輩之禮,解除宇文護對他的警戒心。這一“忍”就是十二年,十二年里,宇文邕做了兩件大事。一是發明完善了象棋。史載“天和四年,五月乙丑,帝制《象經》成,集百寮講說”,宇文邕發明象棋,只是為了游戲嗎?非也。象棋自春秋戰國時代就已出現,宇文邕應該只是據前人發明改造、完善而已,楚河、漢界,正是劉邦項羽爭霸時的情景再現,一場象棋比賽其實就是一場沙盤推演、軍事演習。當時北周外有北齊、南陳、突厥之憂,內有宇文護專權、天子不能親政之患,宇文邕借棋說事,“二國爭強,戎馬生郊,干戈日用,兵連禍結,力敵勢均,疆場之事,一彼一此”,既鍛練了用兵的智慧,又瞞過了宇文邕,讓他以為自己玩物喪志,巧妙地躲過了殺身之禍。eDD歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                宇文邕在這十二年里做的第二件事,便是暗暗積聚力量,鏟除權臣,必須一擊成功,而不能打草驚蛇,自取其禍。《象經》制成之日,也正是宇文邕自覺力量足以制服宇文護之時。第一,此時宇文邕已經三十歲了,年齡上年富力強。其次,他策反了宇文直等對宇文護不滿的宇文家族兄弟以為外援;第三,宇文護兩次對北齊發動戰爭皆大敗而歸,失了軍心民意,但宇文邕并沒有怪罪他,反而安慰他勝敗兵家常事,不要放在心上,從而解除了宇文護對他的戒心。萬事俱備,宇文邕邀請宇文護共同拜見其母,并以孝敬為名讓宇文護勸說老夫人不要再過度飲酒了,有傷鳳體。為了表示誠意,宇文邕贈送宇文護《酒誥》一本,做為勸說老夫人不要過度飲酒的理論依據。這使宇文護感激涕零,對這個百依百順的兄弟哪還有什么警覺之心?此時宇文護已是六十歲的老人了,而宇文邕正當而立之年。正當宇文護對著年邁的母親聚精會神地朗讀《酒誥》之時,宇文邕出其不意奮起一擊,手中的“玉珽”迎頭而下,將宇文護當場擊倒在地,而埋伏在旁邊的宇文直等人突然殺出,揮刀斬下了宇文護的頭顱。eDD歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                鏟除權臣,是宇文邕下的第一步好棋,否則他不但不能親政,而且會步兩位短命皇帝哥哥的后塵。宇文邕下的第二步棋,更是石破天驚:滅佛還俗。宇文邕為什么要這樣做?因為常年與北齊交戰,敗多勝少,宇文邕經過分析,國力不如北齊是主要原因。而大量的寺廟、道觀占據了北周的土地,大量不勞動、不納稅的僧人、道士不但嚴重影響了北周的經濟生產與稅收,而且嚴重影響了北周用于打仗的兵源。從文化因素看,儒家相比佛、道兩家更有利于北周的統治與發展,宇文邕全面接受了漢人儒家的教育學說,因此決定在全國禁止佛、道的流傳。圣旨一下,地動山搖,毀寺四萬,三百萬僧、尼還俗,宇文邕不惜冒“下地獄”之危而強行滅佛,極大地增加了北周的國力,在對北齊的戰爭中掌握了主動權。

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