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              商鞅不姓商:你知道先秦時期人們的姓氏是如何形成的嗎?

              時間:2019-05-09  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                比如商鞅,他的名是叫“鞅”,文史資料和習慣上叫他商鞅,是因為他的封地在“商”地,號為商君,但他是姬姓的,衛氏,所以可以稱衛鞅;他又是衛國公室的后裔,也可以算“公孫”,因此也可以叫公孫鞅。但他的老祖宗,衛國的第一代國君習慣上卻稱為康叔封,他是周武王姬發的弟弟,因為衛國在康國故地,因此周成王時被稱為“康叔”,他的名字是“封”,所以最常見的稱謂記錄就成了康叔封,但他可不是什么“康叔”氏,而是正經的第一個衛氏。其他的什么唐叔虞等也是這種情況。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngC5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                這時我們就要注意了,在先秦和之前,因地位、經歷等不同,到底名前面放什么來標識是各人和各人不同的,不是一概而論什么“女講姓,男講名”。比如,對國君就一般不稱氏而稱姓,比如齊桓公姜小白,就沒人把他記做呂小白。而他在還沒當國君前是最常被稱為公子小白,表示他是齊國的一個“公子”,或者干脆就叫他的名,類似的情況比如晉文公重耳。究其原因,可能是因為對國君而言,姓比啥都重要,是不是姬姓、姜姓、嬴姓等上古八大姓那是區分是不是華夏方國的重要標準,而且一旦成為國君,那么之前的氏他自己就不再用了。還有,進入父系社會后,姓就只來源于父系,那種所謂姓隨母親的怕是把猶太人的習慣給栽過來了。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                但對卿大夫,就主要用氏了,比如管仲就是管氏的,姬姓。畢竟要是一個比較老派傳統的諸侯國,比如像魯國這樣,那超過半數卿大夫都是同一個姓是非常正常的,你要用姓的話那徹底分不清誰是誰了。氏來源于國名或封地名的最多,如趙、魏、衛、宋等都是(趙和魏是封地)。另外,一些特殊的諸侯國未必公室后代有以國名為“氏”的,比如晉國,這主要是因為晉國曾經經歷過“曲沃代翼”和屠戮公子的內亂,一時“晉無公室”了。一個要注意的問題是,氏是可以改的,尤其是得到封地后整個世系一起改,但姓不行。比如魏氏的始祖是畢萬,他因功被封于被滅掉的國家魏國的地盤上,因此畢萬的后人就把家族的氏給改成了魏了。當年在晉國比較搞笑的是,晉文公時很活躍的荀氏(后來曾被韓趙魏三氏連帶齊國一起圍著打才能滅掉的智氏的前身)是從原氏分出來的,原氏得名于原國,但原國被晉給滅了之后被封給了先軫,先軫又把自己的氏改成了“原”……C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                而對一般平民,則以職業來作為名前標識的最多。比如“師”在先秦是指樂手,因此很多樂手都被稱為“師某”,后來甚至有些世代為樂手的家庭干脆就以“師”為氏了。但是,這并不意味著平民就沒有姓氏,只不過是沒有被記錄下來罷了,真正沒有姓氏的只有奴隸,尤其是世代為奴的。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                而女性之所以多以姓為標識,原因在于她們在先秦最重要的特性就是婚姻,而姓對于婚姻有關鍵作用,后面會講到。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngC5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              那為什么說先秦平民都有姓氏呢?C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                首先,先秦社會是從氏族社會發展而來的,還保留有大量的氏族社會特性,直到西周時所謂“平民”的政治地位都很高,他們是“國人”,是有類似古希臘城邦公民的政治地位的,有服兵役的義務(相對而言住在離城邦較遠的區域,只納稅不服兵役的是“野人”)。所謂“大師維垣”(《詩經-大雅-板》),指的就是這些國人是國家的軍事基石,有人也認為這是在當時“大都不城”的情況下,國人就是周天子的軍事屏障。而且當時還是宗族社會,周天子-諸侯-卿-大夫-平民有完整的宗族體系,平民都生活在宗族之中,特別是井田制下生產生活都是在一起的,沒可能不知道自己的姓氏。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                其次,姓氏在當時都是有特定用途的。比如姓就在婚姻中起關鍵作用,先秦強調“同姓不婚”,同一個姓的人是不能結婚的,這明顯是為了優生優育考慮。所以才會有“秦晉之好”“齊國女兒不愁嫁”等說法,因為它們一個是嬴姓,一個是姜姓,在一票姬姓諸侯里自然非常吃得開。平民百姓也都必須遵守這一規定,甚至于如果要納女奴、妓女之類實在是已經忘記了姓的人為妾(畢竟很多人連父親是誰都不知道),還要專門找巫師占卜一下是什么姓……C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                而氏也是一樣,氏主要的來源是封地,但氏并不僅僅只包括那個貴族及其后代,還有一并被封給他的遠房親戚們,或者他自己的親戚們。“卿”在先秦時代更多指的是一個家族,在當時個人奮斗的作用是極為有限的,說誰“輔佐”誰,那是一個家族齊上陣的,百里奚之類“空乏其身”的那都到了春秋中晚期了,在春秋之前的官職一般都是世襲的。周厲王時連像用小一點的諸侯國國君擔任卿士都被認為是在顛覆統治秩序,同樣出自當時的《詩經-大雅-板》這首詩,“大邦維屏,大宗維翰”,大宗族才是維持統治的基石。至于姜太公之類的人,不要以為他是自己來當什么“軍師”的,呂望是帶著自己的族人一起跟著周武王打仗的,被封到齊國后,呂氏家族叮咣五四就把原先在齊國地盤上的萊夷給打殘了,生生打出自己的國土,這可不是靠的姜太公做法……C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在這樣的情況下,周天子和諸侯們的軍隊中,同一個氏的人通常是會被編到一起去的,軍事指揮官就是那個氏的宗主,他會世襲到官職,先秦時文武不分,卿大夫平時按世襲的官職從政(官位等級一樣,但未必是同一個職務),出征時就帶著自己家族和封地上依附于本家族的其他氏族的人馬跟著打仗,這跟歐洲封建時代的貴族帶著附庸去跟著國王打仗差不多。而當時由于正處于封建時代,兩個卿家族之間可是啥事都能發生的,被編到敵對的卿家族宗主率領的軍隊那可是前景大大不妙。而這種編制方式也為一些國家的分裂埋下了伏筆,比如晉國最后就變成了各個卿家族各自率兵一起參戰的場面,打內戰實在是太順理成章了。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                而要滅亡一個“氏”那也是一個浩大的工程,像“趙氏孤兒”的故事原型是下宮之難,趙氏遭到晉國除了韓氏之外其他所有卿家族的攻擊,但這也只是屠殺了趙氏的貴族本宗,其他分支的比如邯鄲氏等并未被波及,趙氏的平民也頗為龐大,更有遠親秦國公室的聲援,最后晉景公還是留下了趙武繼承趙氏。而雖然趙氏本宗給殺得就剩一人了,因為趙氏的基礎還在,在趙武的一生中趙氏又重新恢復到了一等卿家族的地位。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                最后,就是很多因國名而成的“氏”是在被滅國了,公室貴族都成了平民后出現的,因為在諸侯國存在時,除非是另分出支系,否則公室根本就沒有稱氏的必要。比如項氏就是項國被魯國或者齊國給滅了以后,項國的公室流落民間才以項為氏。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngC5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                而姓氏合流也遠比一般流傳的說法要復雜得多。直到西漢時,古人對于自己的姓都還有非常清晰的區分,比如齊國的公室田氏,田氏為姚姓,但是到秦漢時田氏卻有多個來源,因為很多以官職為氏的都把兩個字的氏名簡寫為田了。齊國降秦,一部分公室分支此時已改為王氏,還有一部分公室仍稱為田氏,但秦末齊國短暫復國后的最后一任國君田建,其后人也改為王氏。王氏最著名的后人是王莽,到王莽時仍能清晰分辨姚姓田氏等同姓,并將其中一些封侯。甚至一些氏族對氏源的記載流傳到非常久以后,根本不會混淆。像周、姬就經常有互換的情況,特別是官員,南朝“宇宙大將軍”侯景專權時,因為其祖父名侯周,在這殺官員如割韭菜的軍閥面前,沒奈何就有姓周的官員改回姓姬。當然也有姬姓改周姓的,唐玄宗時為避諱李隆基的“基”,姬姓官員都改了姓周,反正他們中有一部分之前是在武周的時候從周姓改過來的……C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                事實上,嚴格說來根本就沒有所謂姓氏統一或者合流的說法,我們現在使用的統統都是“氏”+名的模式,只不過以前的“氏”后來給叫成了“姓”而已,這也就是為什么姬、姜、姒、嬴、妘、媯、姚、妊這上古八大姓,流傳至現代的只有姜和姚姓比較多,而羋、風等華夏集團之外諸侯的姓則更加稀少了。一旦諸侯國被滅,公室成為平民,那么以故國國名為氏才是比較正常的打開方式,像周被秦滅后,周的公室都稱為了周氏。保留下來以上古姓為現代姓的,其實絕大部分都是改回去的,或者是以姓為氏以紀念的。比如姜姓就是田氏代齊后,姜齊的公室一部分稱齊氏,另一部分則稱姜氏,并不是直接成了“姜姓”。而姚氏則是一部分因姚國而得氏名,另一部分是田齊后人中有姓田的被王莽封了侯,但眼瞅著王莽自己也很快就不行了,于是帶著家族躲到了江南去,東漢時為了避禍,把田氏改回了姚氏。C5x歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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