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              是扶不起的阿斗還是大智若愚?蜀漢后主劉禪的大智慧

              時間:2019-04-23  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:陸棄    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                劉禪完全委政于諸葛亮,看似放權,和漢獻帝一樣是傀儡皇帝,但卻是明智之舉。因為因人而異,諸葛亮不是董卓曹操司馬懿nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                “扶不起來的阿斗”,這是《三國演義》里給劉禪的蓋棺論定。劉禪這個綽號的由來,一是來自于諸葛亮,一是來自于他最終的結果。諸葛亮神機妙算,未出茅廬而定三分天下,但劉備死后,他五出祁山也未成功,糾其原因,人們大多歸罪于前方的馬謖失了街亭,后方的阿斗不是睿智之君,盡給諸葛亮拖后腿。阿斗最后成了亡國之君,人們總理解為沒了諸葛亮的輔佐,亡國便成了必然。于是乎劉禪便成了昏庸之君的代名詞。nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                白帝城托孤nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                但有一個最大的疑問就是,諸葛亮去世三十年后蜀漢才亡國,一個昏庸之君能獨立執政三十年,在強大的魏國與東吳夾縫中生存嗎?一個昏庸之君能駕馭姜維等一眾文臣武將三十年保家衛國嗎?筆者看來,劉禪不能算是昏庸之君,而應算是平庸之君。nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              劉禪完全委政于諸葛亮是明智之舉nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                劉禪雖然不是一個昏庸的君主,但他跟諸葛亮的智慧比起來,那也是小孩與成年人的關系,不在一個檔次上。如果劉備死后,劉禪與諸葛亮爭權,形成皇權與相權之間的矛盾沖突,反而容易激發他與諸葛亮的矛盾,將一個忠臣諸葛亮逼成曹操、司馬懿那樣的權臣。劉禪即位后曰:政由葛氏、祭則寡人。劉禪是很有自知之明的,故他主動把所有的朝廷權力給了諸葛亮,只管祭祀先祖這樣禮儀上的事。劉禪作為一個皇帝的大度反而感化了諸葛亮,諸葛亮也是權臣,但他這個權臣卻是一個鞠躬盡瘁的權臣,忠于蜀漢的權臣,這也正是劉禪所需要的。朝中大事繁冗,有人替操心,有什么不好呢,只管自己享受帝王之福就是了。nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                劉禪nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                所以,劉禪完全委政于諸葛亮,看似放權,和漢獻帝一樣是傀儡皇帝,但卻是明智之舉。因為因人而異,諸葛亮不是董卓、曹操、司馬懿。劉禪恰恰利用了諸葛亮的忠心,經過諸葛亮的治理使蜀漢出現繁榮景象。蜀漢雖然連年戰爭,但川中人民并沒有記恨諸葛亮,充分說明諸葛亮在川中的崇高威望。劉禪認的這個相父,確實沒有辜負劉備臨終矚托,做到了鞠躬盡瘁,死而后已。這與劉禪的充分信任是分不開的。nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              劉禪平衡眾臣之權有實效nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在諸葛亮去世后,劉禪沒有了權相的制約,但劉禪這個皇帝,在朝廷中可沒有崇高的威望。劉備有威望,劉禪是劉備的兒子,他是正宗嫡系繼承人,他只有這個標簽可以壓服群臣。但標簽壓得了一時,壓不得一世。劉禪的聰明之舉在于,他巧妙地平衡了眾臣之間的權力,維持統治三十年。大家都表面上看到劉禪信任的黃皓是個奸臣,實際上黃皓是劉禪平衡眾臣的棋子。不管是費祎、蔣琬,還是大將軍姜維,實際上都沒有擺脫劉禪的掌心,不管對于皇帝多么氣憤,但還是忠于皇帝,沒有做出造反的事來。你看姜維最后,被逼無奈去屯田避禍了,但他在國破家亡之際,還是想盡辦法,最后殉國而死。如果劉禪是個昏庸的混蛋,姜維會這樣嗎?nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                諸葛亮nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                劉禪固然不是一個明君,但他也并不糊涂。歷史上的劉禪并不殘暴,也不象司馬衷那樣弱智,朝中也沒有妲己那樣的美婦禍亂朝綱。只有一個太監黃皓,其實也是劉禪故意制衡眾臣的棋子。劉禪也好色,甚至留朝中大臣的夫人過夜,但這樣的事情并不多。他只是一個平庸之君,正象男人都會犯男人所犯的錯誤一樣,他所犯的是一個平庸皇帝所犯的錯誤。正因為他平衡眾臣之權有效,所以能夠維持三十年統治。正因為他是亂世之中的一個平庸之君,所以不免遭遇亡國的命運。nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              劉禪的投降,未嘗不是明智之舉nxj歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                三國之中,魏國最強大,東吳次之,蜀漢最弱。也就是說,蜀漢是一個在東吳與曹魏夾縫中生存的國家。所以蜀漢一直奉行聯吳抗曹的國策,方能在三國之中茍存。關羽破壞了聯吳抗曹大計,導致劉備發動夷陵之戰,與東吳徹底翻臉,是蜀漢最危險的時候。當然,沒有了蜀漢的支持,東吳也是危在旦夕。東吳與蜀漢是唇亡齒寒的關系。蜀漢之所以賴以生存,除了聯吳抗曹的國策外,還依靠諸葛亮、姜維等名將的維持。

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