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              紂王真的如《封神演義》那么殘暴?

              時間:2019-05-01  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                電視劇《封神演義》正在熱播。其中,商紂王在劇中格外耀眼。下面,筆者就談談他。在中國歷史上,商紂王被認為是荒淫無道的暴君,大多數人也都認同著這個觀點。但其實這是片面的,有抹黑的成分。那么,歷史上真實的商紂王究竟是怎樣的?Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngHh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                首先,介紹下商紂王的生平經歷。帝辛(約公元前1105-公元前1045年),子姓,名受,沫邑(今河南淇縣)人,中國商朝最后一位君主。謚號紂,世稱紂王、商紂王。帝辛自幼聰敏過人。《荀子·非相篇》寫到:帝辛“長巨姣美,天下之杰也;筋力超勁,百人之敵也。”《史記·殷本記》記載“帝紂資辨捷疾,聞見甚敏,手格猛獸”。原本按照嫡長子繼承制度,他無法當上商朝的王,但因為后期的運作,其地位超過了同時期的微子,所以,他才得以繼承王位。由此可見,紂王的能力異于常人。Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                再者,帝辛繼位后,重視農桑,社會生產力發展,國力強盛。他開始對東夷用兵,打退了東夷,向中原擴張,把商朝勢力擴展到江淮一帶。尤其是討伐徐夷的勝利,把商朝的國土擴大到山東、安徽、江蘇、浙江、福建沿海一帶。帝辛對東南夷的用兵,保衛了商朝的安全。他統一東南,把東夷和中原的統一鞏固起來,在歷史上是有功的。”另外,在農業方面,他重用費仲,大力推廣牛耕和灌溉,鼓勵百姓種植農桑,這才有后來商朝繁榮昌盛、萬邦臣服的景象。歷史學家郭沫若有詩句“中原統一肇此人”,并寫道:“這個人是了不起的人才,對于中華民族的貢獻非常之大。中華民族之所以能向南發展,實屬紂王之功”。Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngHh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                更重要的是,紂王廢黜奴隸制度使封建神權制度開始動搖。古人有言曰:牝雞之晨,惟家之索。’今商王受惟婦言是用,昏棄厥肆祀弗答……俾暴虐于百姓,以奸宄于商邑。今予發惟恭行天之罰。”因此,帝辛恢復部分奴隸自由,使他們得到重用。事實上,帝辛的這種行為對于古代中國擺脫神權統治是極其有利的,畢竟在遙遠的商朝,王的權力并不集中,這是封建集權制度的障礙。因此,帝辛此番做法是對中國歷史進程的一次強有力的推動。Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                當然,作為亡國之君,商紂王也有其歷史罪過。其中,盡管有抹黑,但是以下之過是毋庸置疑的。史書上記載的紂王的罪行有:沉溺酒色,奢糜腐化。殘忍暴虐,荼毒四海。那么有著偉大功績的商紂王為何名聲狼藉?Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                其一,紂王廢黜奴隸制動搖了貴族的利益。當時的社會靠的主要就是奴隸來維持社會運轉,靠大量的奴隸從事耕種,畜牧,勞作等活動,他改革奴隸制度對舊貴族發起的沖擊可想而知。舊貴族發現自己的權力受到侵犯,不能再繼續積蓄奴隸為自身效力,就會帝辛的改革不滿,最重要的是舊貴族發現自己參政的權力也在縮水。因此,貴族和帝辛就此決裂。所以各大部落群起而攻之,加快了商朝的滅亡。Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngHh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                其二,歷代史書對紂王的刻意摸黑。歷史學家顧頡剛考證研究后發現,關于商紂王的罪名在《尚書》中只有六項,到了戰國增加了二十項,西漢的時候增加了二十一項,東晉的時候又增加了十三項(見《紂惡七十事發生的次第》)。也就是說商紂王的罪名隨著時間的推移越來越多,是后人對商紂王的罪名層累積疊的堆積起來的,是不可信的。以及紂王最著名的"酒池肉林"、"炮烙"的事情,是由戰國末期的韓非子首次描繪出來的:"昔者紂為象箸而箕子怖,以為象箸必不加于土,必將犀玉之杯;象箸、玉杯必不羹菽藿,則必旄、象、豹胎;旄、象、豹胎必不衣短褐而食于茅屋之下,則錦衣九重,廣室高臺。居五年,紂為肉圃,設炮烙,登糟丘,臨酒池,紂遂以亡。"只是想證明自身的言論:"天下之難事必作于易,天下之大事必作于細。"的正確性。這種牽強附會的說法,把商亡國的主要原因歸結于設想的"奢侈"。Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                子貢說過:“紂之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子惡居下流,天下之惡皆歸焉。”商朝的滅亡,一方面是商朝君臣的怠政,商朝末代的幾位王驕奢淫逸,官員腐敗不堪,另一方面,是天降災禍,暗示商朝氣數已盡。可見,商朝覆滅的原因是多方面所致,因此,不能把所有的原因都歸咎于商紂王。“勝者為王,敗者為寇”。倘若,最后是商紂王平叛了戰亂,穩固商朝統治,那么歷史對商紂王的記載則是另一番景象。Hh0歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              未標明來源于“歷史春秋網”的稿件均為轉載,版權歸原作者所有。如本文內容影響到您的合法權益(含文章中內容、圖片等),請與我們聯系,我們將及時處理。 聯系郵箱:6465372@qq.com;QQ:6465372

              文章標簽:商紂王  廢黜奴隸制  商朝


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