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              商紂王真的那么荒唐無道嗎?

              時間:2019-05-08  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                在史官的筆下,商的亡國之君紂王子受,被描繪成一位荒唐無道、殘忍嗜殺的昏君形象,與夏朝的亡國君桀王姒癸一起,經常被視作昏暴之君的代名詞。然而越來越多的史料證明,商紂王其實并非那么罪大惡極,那么究竟是什么原因,讓他背負千載罵名?在說明原因之前,我們先來看看史書中對紂王罪行的描述,大致說來包括以下兩點:mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngmgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                商紂王被史書描繪成荒唐無道的昏君mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                寵信妖女,荒唐無度。根據正史記載,商紂王極度寵幸有蘇部落的美女妲己,為了討取她的歡心,便派人搜羅天下的奇珍異寶、珍禽奇獸,塞滿了整個宮室。與此同時,紂王還在妲己的鼓動下,對國人進行橫征暴斂,將搜刮來的錢財填滿整個鹿臺,卻絲毫不顧及百姓的死活(“愛妲己,妲己之言是從...厚賦稅以實鹿臺之錢,而盈鉅橋之粟。益收狗馬奇物,充仞宮室。”引文同上)。mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                不僅如此,紂王為追求享樂并避免朝臣的干預,便在沙丘擴建行宮,并放置各種鳥獸以供捕獵。為達到極致快樂的目的,商紂王還在行宮中建造酒池肉林,天天通宵達旦的狂嚼濫飲,并時常命在場的裸男裸女追逐游戲,實在是荒唐不堪(“益廣沙丘苑臺,多取野獸蜚鳥置其中。慢於鬼神。大勣樂戲於沙丘,以酒為池,縣肉為林,使男女倮相逐其間,為長夜之飲。”引文同上)。mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngmgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                妖女妲己教唆商紂王干出很多壞事mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                嚴刑酷法,殘害忠臣。紂王的橫征暴斂、荒唐無度導致民間怨聲載道,而為了壓制百姓們的反抗情緒,他便設置各種嚴刑酷法來威嚇百姓,其中最殘忍的,莫過于炮烙之刑(“于是紂乃重刑辟,有炮烙之法。”引文同上)。所謂的“炮烙”,即堆炭架燒銅柱,令犯人在銅柱上行走,后者因為難耐炙熱,以至于落入火坑中被活活燒死。這種酷刑一出,國人聞之皆色變膽寒,鮮有敢于公開流露不滿情緒者,但內心深處卻恨極了紂王。mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                紂王聽不得任何逆耳之言,若有人敢于進諫,都會毫不猶疑地予以殘殺。比如,王叔比干因為勸諫紂王不可荒唐過度,竟然被剖腹剜心而死;鄂侯因為勸阻紂王不可濫殺,結果被施以脯刑(被制成肉干);西伯姬昌因為悲憫鄂侯的遭遇,結果被關進羑里,數次有性命之憂。如此種種,不一而足。在這種情況下,滿朝文武懾于紂王的淫威,都不敢有所進諫,商朝的局勢可想而知。mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngmgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                牧野之戰失敗后,商紂王自焚而死mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                紂王的荒暴之舉讓天下大為寒心,最終也給自己帶來滅頂之災。前1046年左右,周武王姬發(姬昌之子)趁商朝主力遠征淮夷、國都周圍防守薄弱之際,聯合庸、蜀、羌、髳盧、彭、濮等部族的軍隊進攻朝歌,并憑借優勢兵力,在牧野完勝由奴隸們倉促拼湊而成的商軍。紂王兵敗后自焚,立國近600年的商王朝就此覆亡。mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                以上便是商紂王所犯罪行及最終結局的全部史實,頗符合“多行不義必自斃”的規律。然而對照正史中關于夏桀亡國的記載,我們很容易發現一個非常有趣現象,即夏桀跟商紂一樣都寵幸妖女(妺喜),都喜歡在酒池肉林中盡情享受,都用炮烙之刑虐殺臣民,如此等等,不一而足。無論怎樣看,他們的作為都像是按照同一套“劇本”來“表演”,只是主人公的名字不同罷了。mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngmgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                夏桀王mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                商紂跟“前輩”夏桀的作為是如此驚人的一致,以至于讓人不得不懷疑,他的罪行中其實有很多是杜撰而來,是后世史家為了進一步黑化、丑化他,將原本屬于夏桀的罪行按在他的頭上。否則我們很難解釋,為何兩位暴君的作為是如何相似,以至于連“酒池肉林”、“炮烙之刑”這樣的名目,都懶得改一下名稱?mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                然而就算紂王并非像夏桀那般可惡,但作為暴君,后世還是不加懷疑地接受了正史對他的丑化,之所以會如此,孔子的高足子貢一針見血地說明了原由。原來,子貢在讀到紂王的事跡后,曾感慨地說道:“紂王的惡并非傳說中的那樣嚴重,而之所以被塑造成如夏桀般的暴君,是因為君子非常憎惡居于下流(代指帝王失勢),一旦居于下流,天下所有的壞事、壞名都會歸到他的頭上來。”mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              blob.pngmgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                子貢一句話道出商紂王被丑化的真相mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                子貢這番話,固然是對紂王做相應的辯解,但更重要的則是提醒世人,尤其是帝王們在臺上時要嚴于律己,經常自我警醒,否則一旦失勢,那么天下的惡名都會集于其身,使其最終落得遺臭萬年的下場(“子貢曰:‘紂之不善,不如是之甚也。是以君子惡居下流,天下之惡皆歸焉。’”見《論語·子張篇》)。如此看來,子貢的觀點還真是具有警示意義。mgm歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              未標明來源于“歷史春秋網”的稿件均為轉載,版權歸原作者所有。如本文內容影響到您的合法權益(含文章中內容、圖片等),請與我們聯系,我們將及時處理。 聯系郵箱:6465372@qq.com;QQ:6465372

              文章標簽:商紂王  牧野之戰  周武王姬發


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