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              明朝萬歷初年為何能誕生一批戰神?

              時間:2019-05-23  來源:故宮歷史網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                萬歷初年,首輔張居正獨攬大權。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                張居正系出身文人群的士大夫,但卻不是個只會坐而論道的純文人,對于戰略、兵法、實戰、乃至武將的選人用人,他也是獨具匠心的。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                比如大家都知道的,抗倭名將戚繼光。就是在這個時期走向輝煌的。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                戚繼光,一個貧寒的官宦子弟,沒有考取功名,而是接了祖上的班,任登州衛指揮僉事。登州衛也就是在現在的山東蓬萊,指揮僉事級別不低,正四品,也就是說,在一個邊防地區,擔任一個師級長官。一般官宦子弟做到這個級別,就很知足,不學無術,養尊處優。不用費心讀書,不用考試,錦衣玉食。但戚繼光不然,因為他從小喜歡讀書,雖沒走科考這條路,但卻讀書明志,有著不一般的抱負,什么抱負?用他自己的話說,就是“封侯非為意,但愿海波平”,升官發財不是我的志向,我的志向是保衛祖國海防,不受外敵襲擾。多么高大上。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                戚繼光之所以名垂史冊,有他自己志存高遠的內因,還有兩個外因。一是自明朝起日本對中國的威脅開始加大,另一方,是得到高層賞識,才有用武之地的。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                他受到了誰的賞識?最大的貴人,就是張居正。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                戚繼光最牛的地方,不是殺了多少日本鬼子,而是改變國家兵制,打造了一支新軍,被稱戚家軍。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                我前面說了,明朝搞高度君主集權,兵制搞衛所制,本質上和宋差不多。所以將士的積極性也比較低。衛所制兵士是可以世襲的,老子退下來兒子頂替,因為是世襲,鐵飯碗,干好干壞一個樣。所以本兵大都吊兒郎當。平時也不訓練,打仗時就潰不成軍。戚繼光也是頂了祖上的位,但卻看出弊端。到了戚繼光這,開始試行募兵制,建立戚家軍。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                但是這么大的事,沒有朝廷支持是根本干不成的。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                戚繼光獲得了張居正的鼎立支持。張居正給了戚繼光軍事特區待遇,三權合一,放手讓他招兵、統兵、調兵。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                張居早在隆慶帝時期做內閣次輔時,就提拔過戚繼光,舉薦他為薊總兵,總管東北方軍務。但沒多久戚繼光就跑到內閣找張居正發牢騷,說薊遼的兵沒法帶。張居正深知兵制的弊端,于是鼓勵戚繼光訓練一支新軍。所以可以說張居正的改革是從隆慶四年的兵部開始的,從戚繼光開始。為了支持戚繼光,張居正從極為艱難的朝廷財政中擠出軍費來,讓戚繼光從浙江招募五千人,訓練新軍。相對于本兵,這支部隊叫客兵。相當于現在所稱的志愿軍、雇傭軍。這得靠真本事,要不留不下來。就這樣,戚繼光在張居正的支持下,組建并訓練出一支快速反應部隊,戚家軍。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                張居正對戚繼光信任有加。明朝的總兵是部隊一把手,但上面還有一個總督。總督既是地方行政長官,又領導總兵。過去只要總督和總兵產生矛盾,朝廷一定是撤換總兵,而不會換總督。張居正不一樣,當戚繼光這個總兵和總督產生矛盾以后,撤換的都是總督。而且每個總督上任,張居正都會找他談話,要他支持戚繼光的工作。戚繼光當了十三年的薊遼總兵,薊遼沒有發生一次戰爭,蒙古也沒有一次進犯,這就是富國強兵的威懾力量,既是戚繼光的功勞,也是張居正知人善任的功勞。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                張居正與戚繼光的關系,是萬歷時期官場的一個健康標本。將相和,甚至心心相印。不管別人怎么攻擊戚繼光,張居正始終對他信任有加,長久對他委以重任。戚繼光有一個愛好,喜歡吃豬頭肉,每次過春節的時候,張居正就在北京把豬頭肉做好,派人送到薊遼總兵行轅。戚繼光收到豬頭肉,就拿去和將士們一起分享。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                做了首輔后的張居正,把他與戚繼光的這種關系,示范到整個國防建設中。萬歷初年,張居正不提倡頻繁地換干部,各地的封疆大吏、總兵,他提倡久任制。當然,久任并不等于不升官。你在一個地方干久了,有了政績了,就給你升官。比如說,你還是一個四品的總兵,但給你掛一個兵部左侍郎的銜,不是變成二品的官員了嗎?這種軍官提拔制,給了前線指戰員很大激勵。英雄不問出處,只有有能力建功立業,前途無量。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                張居正的軍政舉策,成就了很多將領。除了戚繼光,還有很多很多。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                諸如李成梁,他的成名也得益于此。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                李成梁是個寒門子弟,家境貧寒,四十歲之前默默無聞。本來以為平淡一生,但是,自隆慶時期有機會展示軍事才能,才開始被人關注。到了張居正執政的萬歷元年,終于飛黃騰達,被任命為遼東總兵官。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在張居正的萬歷新政激勵下,李成梁玩命殺敵,是蒙古軍女真軍的克星。他“師出必捷,威振絕域”,戰功層出不窮,令人眼花繚亂。正是這數不勝數的戰功使李成梁成了遼東的一根定海神針。其面對大大小小的游牧部落,無論是他們單獨挑釁還是聯合出兵,都一一將之挑落馬下,史稱“邊帥武功之盛,兩百年來所未有”。大明二百年的邊防,尤以李成梁取得的戰績最霸氣。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                東北女真部落在李成梁的刀下,難成大氣候。當然,張居正和李成梁都萬萬沒想到,最后竟讓女真的一個分支建州女真做大,奪了大明江山。如果有他們在,努爾哈赤皇太極多爾袞恐怕也會生不逢時,難立蓋世大業。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                對于屢立戰功的遼寧總兵李成梁,張居正力主給他封侯。雖然最后沒有得到侯爵位,但是得到了伯爵位,寧遠伯,不是侯爵,是伯爵,僅次于侯,享受一品大員以上待遇,對寒門子弟李成梁來說,這也算是祖墳冒青煙了。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                張居正通過重用戚繼光李成梁這樣擁有戰功的戰將,向大明的將士們傳達這樣信號——封妻蔭子,萬戶侯沒有問題,只要能給我打勝仗。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在張居正之前,大明學兩宋實行文統軍制,主管軍事的統帥都是進士出身,指揮和實戰脫節。但是到了張居正這,改了,文人議政,武人統兵,武將們獲得了軍隊的獨立指揮權,開了武人治軍的先河,又提高了武將社會地位。于是萬歷初年張居正新政下,明朝軍營出現了一大批能征善戰的名將。“九邊”指揮官全成著名將領,除了薊遼總兵戚繼光、遼東總兵李成梁,還有山西總督王崇古,昌平總兵楊四畏,保定總兵傅津,延綏總兵賈國忠,陜西總兵白允中,甘肅總兵陳銳等。這些將領的出現,令大明的國防達到了固若湯。x8M歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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              文章標簽:張居正  戚繼光  李成梁  萬歷皇帝


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