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              漢族王朝有多強大?他們又是怎么滅亡的?

              時間:2019-05-24  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                漢朝是中國的黃時代,當時商業、農業和自然科學和藝術的發展達到了新的高度。在強大的軍事力量下,漢朝擴張到中亞,甚至延伸到今天的越南和朝鮮。為了增加他們的影響力并確保該地區的和平,漢朝引入了“朝貢制度”,通過承認中國的權威并贈送禮物(通過異族通婚加強關系),鄰國可以保持自治。p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngp6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                例如,北方的匈奴人每年都給漢朝皇帝進貢馬匹,這些馬匹在中國戰爭中受到高度重視。這個朝代給了中國人他們的名字:今天,90%的人口在官方統計中被列為“漢人”。一個更仁慈,更溫和的王朝漢朝建立在秦國的基礎上,但也軟化了一些東西。著名的歷史學家司馬遷在描寫漢朝第一任皇帝時寫道:“它去掉了秦朝的條條框框,退而為圓,去掉了修飾,實現了簡單。”p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                這個王朝有更大的后勁——持續了大約400年。這在很大程度上是由于建立在精英統治基礎上的有效政府所創造的秩序和穩定(使他們能夠集中管理自己的大片領土)。正式的公務員考試是在儒家經典的基礎上引入的。漢朝是經濟擴張的時期,農業和灌溉得到改善,先進的鐵藝創造了強大的工具和武器,與嚴重依賴奴隸制的羅馬不同,漢朝的經濟建立在自由農民的勞動基礎上,自由農民被迫放棄他們的剩余收入作為稅收。p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                絲綢貿易對經濟至關重要。在墳墓中發現的絲綢、錦緞、錦緞和紗布制成的衣服表明,漢代的織布是用精致的織布機織成的。絲綢之路在漢朝下開辟了。漢人通過中亞中間人與羅馬進行貿易。看到絲綢之路p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                漢朝政府擁有中國最大的鹽和絲綢兩大產業,這兩大產業都得益于新的科技進步。由于蠶絲是由蠶繭的纖維制成的,所以蠶絲的制作是一項費時費力的工作。開發了一種以腳為動力的機器,將絲纖維纏繞在一個大卷軸上,使絲綢生產速度更快,效率更高。這一點特別重要,因為絲綢在貿易中很有價值。通過絲綢之路,西方被引入絲綢。愷撒在劇院穿了一件絲綢斗篷之后,在羅馬貴族中掀起了一股時尚熱潮。在羅馬的某個時候,一磅絲綢可以賣到600克黃金。埃及女王克利奧帕特拉也是一位偉大的絲綢收藏家。中國的另外兩大出口商品是茶葉和瓷器(中國在漢代發明了瓷器)。流行的進口包括動物(尤其是駱駝、馬和鳥)和食物和香料(如石榴、大蒜、核桃和胡椒)。佛教戰國時期孔子時代在印度出現,通過絲綢之路在中國首次出現。從中國傳播到東南亞、西藏、韓國和日本。p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngp6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                漢朝的驚人發展始于漢朝第七任皇帝武帝改變策略。他取代了先前與鄰國建立條約或朝貢關系的穩定外交政策。建立了新的機構,想將邊境地區置于帝國的控制之下控制所有的權力在皇帝身上。后來的皇帝繼續擴張。到了公元18世紀80年代,可以說,大約在這個時候,西漢失去了統治的權利,失去了天命。儒家學者哭了,士紳們通過壓迫弱者獲得了經濟增長的好處。在魯子統治時期,一個叫王莽的儒生在朝廷掌權并廢黜了皇帝。許多儒家學者視王莽為他們的道德救星,西漢滅亡了。p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                王莽想把中國改造成一個完全以儒學為基礎的社會結構,并利用孟子的預言為他的政變辯護。然而,王莽卻無法與中產階級一起進行改革;西漢時期形成的強大的紳士大眾。雖然王莽通過都城控制著中國,但州省分治,跟隨王莽的儒家管理著其中的一部分,但法家和士紳都有自己的法律法規。政府頒布了一項法令,要求人們將糧食儲存起來,而不是投放市場。但是人們忽視了這一點,沒有儲存食物。當一場可怕的洪水摧毀了許多水稻種植園和農場時,人們沒有食物,只好吃人。p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngp6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                儒家學者所認為的所有人類的基本善良和善良似乎消失了。公元23年,叛軍襲擊并摧毀了雄偉的漢朝首都長安。由于后面的皇帝迷于酒色導致朝政荒廢宦官與大臣爭名奪利導致國家元氣大傷在對后來的攻擊無法進行防御。在經濟上,到東漢后期,政府的稅收收入急劇下降,限制了他們資助法院和支持軍隊抵御外部威脅的能力。p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngp6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                事實上,漢朝滅亡的最重要因素之一可能是公元前133年至公元89年的中匈奴戰爭,兩個多世紀以來,漢人和匈奴一直在中國西部地區作戰,這是絲綢之路貿易商品進入漢人城市的關鍵地區。公元89年,漢朝粉碎了匈奴,但這場勝利付出了如此高昂的代價,最終導致了漢朝政府的致命動蕩。被匈奴壓迫的羌族人民非但沒有加強漢帝國的力量,反而使其得以解放p6X歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              未標明來源于“歷史春秋網”的稿件均為轉載,版權歸原作者所有。如本文內容影響到您的合法權益(含文章中內容、圖片等),請與我們聯系,我們將及時處理。 聯系郵箱:6465372@qq.com;QQ:6465372

              文章標簽:王莽  朝貢制度  漢朝


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