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              對中國古人而言,需要好的睡眠前提是有好枕頭

              時間:2019-06-03  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                枕頭是枕的一種,它是人們日常生活中最普通的用品之一。在我國古代歷史上曾出現過草薦枕、木枕、玉枕、瓷枕、鹽枕、琥珀枕、琉璃枕、藤枕、布枕等各種枕頭。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                據《說文解字》解釋,“枕,臥所以薦首者。從木,冘聲。”其中,“薦”意指草或草墊子。據記載,上古社會先民通常“逐水草而居,即無余席,便坐薦上。”草薦不僅用來供人坐、墊,也用于人們躺著時支撐頭部,可見“草薦”是人類最早使用的枕頭之一。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在歷史上,人類何時自覺地使用枕具,最早的枕具究竟是何種形態、何種材料已經不得而知。自然界中隨處可見的草束、木棍、石塊、土塊或吃剩的動物毛皮、獸骨也許都曾被枕用過。只不過它們因為質地的原因,有的早已腐朽不存。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                《詩經·唐風·葛生》中有: “角枕粲兮,錦衾爛兮。予美亡此,誰與獨旦”這首詩是婦人悼念亡夫之作,女子目睹角枕、錦衾,念及夫婦舊日情深,不禁傷心,發為浩嘆。但角枕到底為何形態,文中難以看出。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                《禮記》中提到人起床后要將枕、席等物收起來,且長輩的枕、席、簟、衾等不能隨便移動。《禮記·內則》,“雞初鳴,成盥漱,衣服,斂枕簟”,“父母姑舅之衣、衾、簟、席、枕、幾不傳”。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                湖北黃岡螺蜘山遺址墓葬中發現兩件石枕,可能是目前所知最早的石枕。其中一件在墓主頭骨下平墊。黃沙石,質疏松。近長方體,四周和上部枕面經打制加工,枕面有刻劃溝槽,不甚規整。長18厘米,寬約16厘米,厚4~5厘米。另一件石枕置于墓主人顱骨下,枕面和四周有明顯的人工加工痕跡,但這個時候的枕頭是否專門為睡覺打造還不得而知。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                湖北省江陵市馬山1號楚墓出土的竹木枕 ,是我國目前發現的最早的成型枕頭實物。在商朝時期,成型的枕頭已經出現。在文獻記載中,相傳商朝時就有玉石制作的虎頭枕,這大概是最早的枕頭的一種造型。當時,人們把虎作為氏族圖騰或保護神,有祛邪避魔的作用。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.png9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                東周時期,常年的戰亂使得物質資料匱乏,因而此時的家用紡織品相對比較樸素。直到秦國實現大一統之后,隨著生產力的提高以及紡織工藝的進步,家用紡織品逐漸豐富。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                漢代,由于墓葬遺存較豐富,發現的枕的種類和數量都很多,貴族墓葬中多見有玉枕,此外亦發現石枕、木枕、漆枕、草木枕、苫枕、錦枕、銅木合制枕、絹枕、雞鳴枕等。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                隨著漢代生活水準的提高和社會文化的發展,枕的制作、使用及其在文化上的功能都得到進一步的豐富和發展。湖南省馬王堆西漢墓出土一件絹枕 ,屬于軟質枕頭,可見在早期我國枕頭就有了軟、硬之分。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.png9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                漢代發現玉枕的墓葬較多,尤以徐州為最,玉枕一般是以長方形和三角形玉片連接而成,表面光滑。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                漢代的枕頭形狀各異,絲織枕的實物從形狀看,多為長方形或者長條形,如新疆民豐北大沙漠1號東漢出土一件用“延年益壽大宜子孫”錦制作的枕,造型為雄雞形。這種兩端起、中間凹的造型不僅符合人體工學,又蘊含了古人雞鳴即起之意。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.png9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                魏晉時期,由于社會動蕩,從枕的出土量和多樣性看要大大遜于前朝。不過,像木枕到了南北朝時期已相當普遍,《北史》載:“基性清慎,無所營求,嘗語人云:‘任官之所,木枕亦不須作,況重于此乎?’。”說的是北齊皇建年間鄭州長史朗基為官清廉,不貪圖享受,他居住的地方,連木枕都沒有。這一資料顯示,在南北朝時期,木枕已比較普遍,算不上貴重的東西。《新唐書》:“(陽城)常以木枕布衾質錢,人重其賢,爭售之。”說明在唐代木枕已是人們普遍使用的生活品。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                到了唐宋時,中國古代的經濟發展達到了巔峰,人們對枕頭的享受也開始講究起來,尤其是瓷枕的出現。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                第一件也是最早的瓷枕發現于河南安陽的張盛墓,出土墓志表明張盛死于隋開皇十四年( 594)安陽修仁鄉,十五年(595)與夫人王氏葬于相州安陽城北五里白素鄉。張盛墓的隨葬器物比較豐富,共192件,其中在日用器物模型中就有一件瓷枕模型,不過,除了這件瓷枕模型外,隋代尚未有真正的生活用瓷枕出土。所以很多人都認為,瓷枕產生的最初動機是為隨葬之用。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                到唐代,瓷枕出土的比較多,說明這一時期瓷枕已經逐漸發展起來,主要有方形枕和獸形枕兩類。燒制瓷枕的窯口有長沙窯、銅川窯、鞏縣窯、邢窯、壽州窯等。采用的裝飾技法主要有絞胎、三彩、印花、釉下彩。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                據考古發現,河北、河南、山西、安徽、湖南、浙江等地的瓷窯遺址中均有作為枕頭的瓷器,而且當時的瓷器品種已相當豐富,分別有白釉、白釉綠彩、白釉褐綠彩、三彩、珍珠地劃花、絞胎、黃釉、黑釉、青釉、青釉褐綠彩、青釉印花等花色品種;瓷枕的形狀也已相當豐富,有長方形、橢圓形以及各種動物、花卉的形狀,如兔形枕等。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                唐代張鷟《朝野箋載》和《舊唐書·五行志》中都有這樣的記載:“韋庶人妹七姨,嫁將軍馮太和,權傾人主,嘗為豹頭枕以辟邪,白澤枕以辟魅,伏熊枕以宜男。”這里說的“豹頭枕”、“白澤枕”、“伏熊枕” 指的就是形狀各異的瓷枕。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.png9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                考古發現的唐代枕中,除了瓷枕外,還有石枕、滑石枕、布枕等,亦有以土坯作枕和以板瓦作枕者。這說明唐代枕的使用還是多元化的,不同形式的枕同時存在。唐代文人筆下的枕更是豐富多彩,見于文獻的就有游仙枕、夜明枕、石枕、玉枕、琥珀枕、瑪瑙枕、水晶枕、石膏枕、沉香枕、黃楊枕、白石枕、青鹽枕、神雞枕、藥枕、書枕,數量品類頗多。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                宋代是中國制瓷業迅猛發展、成就最為杰出的時代,可以說是官窯林立,民窯競起。這一時期,此時,瓷器真正成為大眾產品,盤、盆、瓶、壺、罐、枕等各種生活用器在上層和民間都有較大需求。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                瓷枕在宋代,已經是非常普遍的日常用器,其制作生產已經形成比較穩定的格局,甚至呈現出專門化的趨勢。宋代瓷枕的生產有南北之分,北方地區以河北、河南、山西為中心,南方地區以江西為中心。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                這一時期,瓷枕的數量和品種也更加豐富,出現了白釉劃花、白釉剔花、白釉印花、珍珠地劃花、黑釉印花、黑釉劃花、黑釉剔花、黃釉印花、三彩、醬彩、青釉印花、彩繪等品種;瓷枕的形狀除了長方形、腰圓形等常見形狀外,還出現了如意形、虎形、獅形、豹頭形等不同式樣。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                這些瓷枕的枕面長、寬或徑小者10cm,大者35cm,枕高14 ~ 20cm,呈前低后高、外高內陷的特征。一般,唐朝的瓷枕尺寸較小,枕面徑約在10 ~ 15cm 之間,而后來燒制的瓷枕枕面尺寸較大,通常徑可以達到29cm 以上。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.png9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                對于宋人來說,在炎熱的夏季,瓷枕無疑是涼爽而舒適的,這從瓷枕上的詩文題字和文人對瓷枕的贊賞中可見一斑。如磁州窯瓷枕上的題詩:“夏日景偏長,遙天轉暑光。如人會消遣,何處不清涼。”即是描寫夏日景象的。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.png9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                老百姓也會在瓷枕的造型和裝飾上寄寓了自己的樸素理想——婚育祈子、辟邪納祥、人生感懷等。這些精神性的內涵使得瓷枕超越物質形態,進入精神文化領域,成為民眾樂于接受的生活必需品。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                明代時,陶瓷枕雖仍有前代遺風,但總體走向衰落,反倒多見絲織枕和布枕。另一方面,此時的絲織品織藝精湛,質地優美,棉紡織業成為普及的手工業,印染、刺繡、鑲嵌等工藝日漸純熟。因此,軟質的絲織枕制作簡單,并且更加舒適,瓷枕逐漸失去了往日的光輝。到了清代,絲織枕進一步發展,瓷枕更多成了裝飾。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                明清的枕頂通常以“鴛鴦”圖案為裝飾,以繡花工藝為主例如扣繡等。雖然枕頭從瓷枕變成了絲織枕,但人們在借由枕頭表達美好愿望的風俗還是流傳了下來,只不過絲織枕改成了刺繡。寓意多子多福、家族興旺的“百子枕頭”則是當時很多皇室貴族親睞的軟枕。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.png9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                至清朝晚期,多見絲織和布質枕。上海《申報》在同治十二年(1873年)年末,刊登:海道憲制定的《惜字章程》: “繡貨京貨店所售枕頂、手帕、肚兜、扇套、紗袋,各件草蟲花鳥盡足娛目,何必刺繡詩句。況枕頂置之臥所,肚兜、手帕系婦女所用,以及束腰帶、褲帶等件,一經繡字穢褻尤甚。嗣后務須一律改用花樣,如敢再繡字跡,定干提究。”從這段描述中可知,當時枕頭上也會繡一些不正經的東西。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                清代時尤其流行將中藥、茶葉或者花瓣等物品放入枕頭中,用以作為保健之途,有些也是為了可以促進睡眠,直到今日,有些人仍然會采用此方法養生9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                區區枕頭,從做法到用料,再到上面的圖案,其實都是中國手工業發展史的縮影。9zM歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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              文章標簽:玉枕  瓷枕  明代布枕


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