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              五十四歲的朱元璋因為什么事情痛哭不止?

              時間:2019-06-04  來源:歷史春秋網  作者:    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                眾所周知,明太祖朱元璋為人嚴厲,冷酷無情。在推翻元朝,建立明朝后,他便開始對朝中官僚和功臣貴勛們大開殺戮。貧苦人家出身的他尤其痛恨那些貪官污吏,甚至搞出了明朝洪武年間特有的土地廟前剝皮充草的懲戒辦法。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                但就是這樣一位自底層一步步爬上來,在經歷了無數刀光劍影,心早已變得如鐵石般堅硬的老人,卻在五十四歲時號啕大哭,因為在洪武十五年(1382年),他的皇后—明孝慈馬皇后去世。馬皇后的去世不光給朱元璋帶來了沉重的打擊,還極大地影響到了明朝洪武時期的朝政。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngqQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                為什么冷酷無情的朱元璋會對馬皇后的離世如此悲傷?馬皇后的離世又為何會影響到洪武年間的朝政呢?要想探究其中根源,便不得不先從朱元璋凄慘的身世說起。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                一個人性格的形成,與其早年的生活經歷息息相關,朱元璋也是如此。朱元璋原名朱重八(蒙古統治下,漢人平民不能起名,只能用數字代替,重八,即家中排行第八),濠州鐘離人(今安徽鳳陽),出身于貧民家庭。朱元璋十五歲時,濠州發生了蝗災和瘟疫,饑餓讓百姓走投無路。地方的貪官污吏們非但不賑濟,反而屢次前來欺壓,強取豪奪,使得在不到半個月的時間里,朱元璋的父親,大哥以及母親先后去世,家中只剩下了朱元璋和他的二哥。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                晚年的朱元璋在回憶起那時凄慘的光景時,仍不無心酸的說道: “魂悠悠而覓父母無有,志落魄而佒佯。西風鶴唳,俄淅瀝而飛霜。身如蓬逐風而不止,心滾滾乎沸湯”,其悲慘境遇可想而知。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngqQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                黑暗的時代讓朱元璋承受了常人難以承受的痛苦,在父母死后,朱元璋為了活下去,先去了皇覺寺當和尚,后來受兒時伙伴湯和的邀請去參加了義軍,投靠了郭子興。朱元璋為人處世極好,不爭功不貪圖賞賜,因此頗受郭子興賞識。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                郭子興曾有個好友姓馬,馬公死后將自己的女兒托付給了郭子興。雖然是養女,但郭子興對她視同己出,很是疼愛。郭子興對朱元璋的能力很是認可,正好養女馬氏也到了該談婚論嫁的年紀,于是郭子興便將馬姑娘許配給了朱元璋。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                郭子興將馬姑娘嫁給朱元璋,不管是出于純粹的賞識,還是為了籠絡他,對于朱元璋而言都不重要。因為對于他來說,這是在他家破人亡十幾年后,在吃盡了苦頭,受盡了白眼的十幾年后,再度有了一個家,他不再沒人管,沒人問。讓尚沉浸在家所帶來的溫暖之中的朱元璋沒有想到的是,這個女人不光使他再度有了一個家,還為他日后成為皇帝的做了很多的貢獻。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngqQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                郭子興這個人性格有些狹隘,尤其是在朱元璋的能力越來越大,在軍中的影響力不斷增強的情況下。看朱元璋越來越不順眼的郭子興便開始籌劃著要干掉朱元璋。他和他的兒子郭天敘找了個借口把朱元璋軟禁了起來,絕其口食,企圖把朱元璋活活餓死。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                就在這關鍵時刻,救夫心切的馬皇后將剛做好的餅偷偷地藏在懷里去送給朱元璋。到了牢中拿出來給朱元璋吃時,滾燙的餅把胸前的皮膚都給燙傷了。即“(馬皇后)后竊懷鐺底飼之,值蒸饃鑼熱,后乘熱竊其一懷之薄乳傍,乳為之糜。”為了救自己的丈夫,馬皇后把家中的所有財物都拿出來給了郭子興身邊的家人,以求郭子興能放過朱元璋。在她的不懈努力下,朱元璋沒多久便被放了出來。這次被囚是朱元璋踏上征途的第一個大的劫難,而馬皇后為了救他所表現出來的夫妻情誼讓朱元璋一生都銘記在心。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                馬皇后不光在生活上給了朱元璋很大的幫助,還在其征戰天下的過程中給予了他很多的支持。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                當朱元璋領兵出戰時,留在后方的馬皇后總是竭盡所能,她精通女紅(舊指紡織、縫紉、刺繡一類的工作及其制成品),經常親自組織后方軍士的妻女們縫補衣物以支援前方征戰的將士們。在朱元璋和陳友諒進行戰略決戰之時,馬皇后還將宮中所有的財物捐出,以犒勞將士,鼓舞士氣。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                值得一提的是,馬后很有智謀,朱元璋領兵渡江而戰,留在后方的馬皇后認為如果此時元兵繞過來偷襲,后方必然會被元兵分割包圍,而前方將士也會因自己的家屬被圍而動搖士氣、亂了陣腳。于是馬皇后沒等朱元璋的命令,便當機立斷,迅速帶領大批留在后方的將士家屬過江,后來果然如馬皇后所料,元兵企圖進行分割包圍,不過馬皇后的當機立斷讓這個企圖成了泡沫。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngqQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                除了扮演好賢內助的角色外,馬皇后對于明初的朝政也有很大的影響。盡管朱元璋在明朝建立后,便定立了后宮不得干政的鐵律,但馬皇后與他共患難的特殊地位,以及馬皇后自身的賢德和對朝政的獨特見解,使朱元璋總能傾聽和采納她的意見。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                每當朱元璋暴怒而無人能制時,她總是上前阻止,保護了眾多功臣、賢臣和平民百姓們,而對于那些頗為苛刻的政策,每當馬皇后進諫后,也總能得到適當調整。因此,馬皇后對于制止殺戮起到了很積極的作用,而諸多經過她的建議而加以調整的政策更是促進了明初社會經濟的恢復和發展。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                對于這樣一位賢明的皇后,最令人欽佩的莫過于她對待死亡的態度,以及在面對死亡時,仍然在為別人著想。洪武十五年(1382年),馬皇后患病。很多受過皇后諍諫保命之恩的大臣們都四處去祈禱,工作狂朱元璋放下了工作,到處去尋良醫來醫治。與朱元璋相伴一生的馬皇后卻對朱元璋說,“死生,命也,禱祀何益!且醫何能活人!使服藥不效,得毋以妾故而罪諸醫乎?”她一生都在為別人著想,哪怕在生命的最后,還在擔心大夫因治不好自己的病而被憤怒的朱元璋給殺掉。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在即將離開人世的時候,朱元璋曾問馬皇后還有何遺言,這位與朱元璋患難與共一生的馬姑娘說:“愿陛下求賢納諫,慎終如始,子孫皆賢,臣民得所而已。”說罷,含笑離開了人世。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              image.pngqQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                明朝孝慈馬皇后有著杰出的賢德與獨特政治見解,在朱元璋事業的初創期,她竭盡全力的去支持他。建國后,她不惜觸怒本就暴怒的朱元璋,敢于進諫,對朱元璋施加影響,對明初政治產生了深刻的影響。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                馬皇后與朱元璋一生患難與共,夫妻情誼讓朱元璋一生都難以忘懷,因此哪怕冷酷如朱元璋也因她的逝世而痛哭, “帝慟哭,遂不復立后”。qQg歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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              文章標簽:馬皇后  朱元璋  郭子興


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