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              古墓里的“魂瓶”有什么用

              時間:2018-05-16  來源:  作者:李開周    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                開封博物館新館開放,我帶孩子去參觀,在二樓宋展廳見到一對青色瓷瓶,兩尺來高,樣子相近,像一對剛上幼兒園的雙胞胎。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              古墓里的“魂瓶”有什么用qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                上下打量這對“雙胞胎”,都是瘦瘦的身材,下半截大肚圈足,上半截堆塑著許多佛像、云朵、游龍和神龜,頂端都有一個圓錐形的蓋兒,蓋子上都站著一只鳥。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                開封博物館給這對瓷瓶取了名字:南宋影青皈依瓶。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                我兒子不認識“皈依”的“皈”字,問我什么意思。我告訴他,“皈依”就是信仰某種宗教,一般指佛教。打個比方說,以前你不信佛,現在信了,別人就可以說你皈依了。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                但是,這對瓷瓶跟皈依佛教沒什么關系,寺廟里為信眾舉行的皈依儀式上也不可能用到這種瓶子,因為它們是明器,是隨葬品,是埋在墓穴里給死人用的。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                國內博物館里經常可以見到這類瓷瓶,一般都是成對出現,造型都跟我們開封博物館里展出的這對瓷瓶差不多。我在江西省博物館見過一對,高約半米,下半截大肚圈足,上半截堆塑一圈佛像,佛像再往上,各纏一條龍和一頭猛虎,瓶口蓋著圓錐形的蓋子,蓋子上各站一只鳥。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                因為瓶身堆塑佛像的緣故,過去考古界誤以為只有佛教徒死后才會用這類瓶子隨葬,所以命名為“皈依瓶”。也有人根據形態來命名,稱它們“堆塑瓶”或者“堆塑長頸瓶”。不過這些命名都不太科學,比較科學的名字應該是“魂瓶”。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                為什么叫做“魂瓶”呢?難道像林正英在世時主演的那些香港恐怖片一樣,被茅山道士用來收孤魂野鬼的魂魄嗎?其實不是的。它們真正的用途,是幫助死者的魂魄上天。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                在宋朝,平民百姓和中下級官吏去世后下葬,墓穴里往往會放入一對魂瓶。如果是夫婦合葬墓,墓穴里會有兩對魂瓶,男尸附近放一對,女尸附近放一對。墓穴里隨葬魂瓶的風俗,在宋朝淮河以南的地區比較流行,特別是在江西,幾乎每一座宋墓里都能發現魂瓶——假如那座宋墓沒有被盜墓賊提前破壞的話。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                具體來講,宋墓里的魂瓶有兩個作用。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                第一,用來鎮墓。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                宋朝人迷信,既相信人死后有鬼魂,又相信會有一些惡鬼來侵擾墓穴里的死者,就像非法闖入民宅的盜匪一樣,必須采取措施把它們趕走,否則死者的亡靈無法安息。怎么才能趕走惡鬼,或者讓惡鬼不敢進入墓穴呢?可以在墓道里放一只用石頭雕成的粗大笨重的鎮墓獸,也可以在棺槨旁邊放兩只魂瓶。魂瓶上不是有一圈佛像嗎?佛像上面不是有游龍、猛虎、神龜或者其他吉祥物嗎?在宋朝人心目中,這些雕塑都有驅趕惡鬼的功效。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                第二,用來引魂。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                受佛教文化的影響,宋朝人認為死后可能會進入輪回,也可能往生極樂世界。假如沒有向導領路,大部分鬼魂都會處于渾渾噩噩的狀態,總是找不著北:本來可以順利投胎,結果留在了中陰世界;本來可以升上天堂,結果再次投生凡間;本來可以往生極樂,結果陷入六道輪回。所以,古人在魂瓶的頂端塑造一只神鳥,讓神鳥指引著鬼魂的去路,幫助它們走進更好的世界。qPo歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

              未標明來源于“歷史春秋網”的稿件均為轉載,版權歸原作者所有。如本文內容影響到您的合法權益(含文章中內容、圖片等),請與我們聯系,我們將及時處理。 聯系郵箱:6465372@qq.com;QQ:6465372

              文章標簽:魂瓶  開封博物館  南宋影青皈依瓶


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