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              消失的老北京手藝活兒

              時間:2019-02-20  來源:新浪歷史  作者:張 征    評論:  【國學  收藏  糾錯

                老北京有不少手藝人,各懷絕技。但是,如果這個手藝讓一項新的科技發明“頂”了,那這人的生活境遇就非常慘。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                很多年前,我認識一位王爺府的后人,我尊稱他為“那老”,他的手藝是“揀字”,所謂揀字,就是揀鉛字。退回幾十年,印刷業里第一道工序就是“揀字”:從無數的木頭架子上往一個盤子里揀鉛字,手里拿著稿子,挨個找鉛字,然后放進盤子里。一個盤子,里面揀滿鉛字后,正好是要印刷的圖書的一頁,拿粗線繩捆好,這一頁就完成了。那老的手藝,非常了得。他一邊跟我聊著天,一邊手不閑著,鉛字一個一個放進盤子里。我打趣地說,“您這手藝,停電的時候也不耽誤揀字。”他聽了,點頭道:“你還真瞧出來了。這些個字,都存我心里呢。那回有個急件,頭兒把我招來,正趕上停電,三人就一根蠟,我說,緊著你們。我,盲揀。結果,我第一!頭兒高興,管我叫‘黑暗生存冠軍’。”BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                能在停電的時候,游走在如林的鉛字里,從容的揀字,那老可謂神人也。據他自己講,年輕的時候,為了揀字,吃了無數的苦,手指頭經常用橡皮膏裹著。后來,電腦出現,排版也用電腦,幾乎一夜之間,鉛字廢了。那老也沒了“用武之地”,天天去太廟遛彎。他那讓人叫絕的手藝,也成“屠龍術”了。靠著太廟的古柏,那老笑呵呵地說:“正好安享晚福!”這是他的真心話。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                我還認識一位“爺”,他的手藝,也是一絕,專門給破舊的手表“文身”。那年月,人們掙錢少,有塊手表都不易,買不起新的,就到前門、東單、西單的典當行,當時叫“寄托商行”,尋覓塊舊的。舊手表的標準不在外形,只在乎里面的機器瓤子是不是正常。里面是好的,外邊的表盤掉漆了,夜明的涂料脫落了,怎么辦?就找他。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                上世紀七十年代,我弄了塊手表,可惜表盤的面兒殘了,夜明也不顯示了。我找到了這位“爺”,他抓手里一瞧:“你的活兒只是大路貨,沒有難度。但是你得等,一禮拜后來取。”七天之后,我到他在東單把角的小鋪子里取手表,我一瞧,這個表盤畫的不錯,有點兒文物復制的水準,乍一眼,似乎是新的,那個夜明,也都點上了,用手遮住亮光,立刻發出藍光。成功!BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                后來,手表越來越多,電子表異軍突起,沒有人再找他了,他四十多年的手藝,在東城幾乎是霸主地位的手藝,一分錢不值了。后來,他養養魚,喂喂鷯哥,成了徹底的“游手好閑”分子。有一回,有小朋友問,“您原來是干什么的?”他提著鷯哥籠子,唱著戲詞兒,“唉,別提它啦——”小朋友以為他在逗著玩兒,而我,則沉默無語。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                還有一位老奶奶,她是打疙帛的。現在的年輕人,甭說這門手藝,就這三個字兒,都不會念。打疙帛是動詞,跟“打年糕”差不多,“疙帛”才是個名詞。疙帛是什么東西?那是做布鞋底子的上等必需品。怎么“打”?首先,得收集足夠的布頭兒,沒有新布頭兒的,也可用舊布頭兒。收集好布頭后,先把布頭兒漿洗干凈。洗得干干凈凈后晾干,再把它們展平,碼放整齊,然后,進入下一步:“打糨子”。糨子就是白面制作的“膠水”,弄一斤白面,用水打稀了,打到比清水兒略稠,放小火上攪和著,直到起了小水泡兒,糨子就可以用了。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                老奶奶等糨子涼了,扯出八仙桌,先找出塊最大的布頭兒,放桌子上,然后往布頭兒上用刷子刷糨子,刷滿了,把另外的布頭兒放上面。這就有講究了,要會“拼縫兒”,多碎的布頭兒在同一層上面,也要拼得沒有縫隙,這樣做出來的鞋底子,穿了才會既不踩空又不硌腳,舒服。別人打的疙帛,五六層,老奶奶打的,一律九層。她打的疙帛就有固定的“下家”,據說都是東城有名的鞋店。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                可是,這個行業,現在也從北京城里消失了。當今老字號的鞋底,絕大部分也是膠底、皮底了。想找老奶奶這樣的“打疙帛”高手,難了。最近聽說,有人開始打疙帛了。不過他們用的是化纖布,使的是化學糨子,這疙帛打出來,穿腳上,怎么可能有柔柔的純棉布、白面糨子粘起來的可腳可心?BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                搪爐子的,也是一絕。這活兒沒有什么稀奇。爐子到了一定時間,爐壁里面的搪灰就酥了,必須重新“搪”一次。這活看似簡單,把搪灰敲掉,露出爐子的鐵壁,再用新的搪灰鋪嚴實則可。說著容易,自己來,爐子十有八九火苗子不旺。找人家專門搪灰的,弄好之后,爐子的火苗子呼呼往上躥。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                吹玻璃器,也是個絕活,現在沒有了。這個“吹玻璃”,就是把玻璃料化成水狀,拿一個五尺長的鐵吹管蘸上,鼓著腮幫子使勁兒地吹。很多年前,北京燈泡廠的工人,上了班就是站爐前吹,大家是各執一管,吹出一個,接著蘸料又吹。這種職業現在已經沒有了,全部由機器解決。除此之外,做玻璃器皿的也要吹,通過吹帶來藝術構思,這比吹燈泡雅而且難度大,這種手藝現在還極小范圍的存在。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

                還有一種手藝人,現在也難得一見了:管家。看門護院的難找,找個好管家更是難上加難。為什么說管家是門子手藝呢?全在于這個行當是無所不能,首先會處理復雜的人際關系,再是理財高手,三是五行八作都了如指掌。合格的管家,到了最后,就是這家子的頭號爺了,誰也離不開,誰也惹不起。清帝遜位以后,多少家王府的結局,都是管家坐大,最后成了一府之主。從這就可以看出“管家”這個行當里高人輩出。不過,這是門綜合性極強的手藝,一般人的能力不逮,只能望洋興嘆。BK1歷史春秋網 - 專注于中國古代歷史

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              文章標簽:老北京  手藝  北京


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